128,145 research outputs found

    Characteristics of ocean-reflected short radar pulses with application to altimetry and surface roughness determination

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    Current work related to geodetic altimetry is summarized. Special emphasis is placed on the effects of pulse length on both altimetry and sea-state estimation. Some discussion is also given of system tradeoff parameters and sea truth requirements to support scattering studies. The problem of analyzing signal characteristics and altimeter waveforms arising from rough surface backscattering is also considered

    The relative importance of prebiotic synthesis on the Earth and input from comets and meteorites

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    The prebiotic synthesis of hydrogen cyanide and formaldehyde was studied by the action of electric discharges on various model primitive atmospheres containing CH4, CO, and CO2. Photochemical production rates would also have been important and were calculated for HCN and H2CO. A reasonable rate of synthesis of amino acids from these sources is about 10 n moles/(sq cm yr) or 0.10 moles/sq cm in 10(exp 7) yrs. This would give a concentration of 3 x 10(exp -4) M in an ocean of the present size (300 liters/sq cm). The amino acids cannot accumulate over a longer period because the entire ocean passes through the 350 C submarine vents in 10(exp 7) yrs, which decomposes all the organic compounds. A number of workers have calculated the influx of comets and meteorites on the primitive earth, both as a destructive process for organic compounds and for any life that was present, as well as a source of organic compounds. Some of the amino acids from the meteorite proposed to have hit the earth 65 x 10(exp 6) yrs ago were detected at the Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary sediments. The problem with proposing a large scale input of organic compounds from meteorites and comets is that they must survive passage through the atmosphere and impact. There are some processes that would allow survival such as showers of centimeter to meter sized meteorites and various aerodynamic braking processes for larger objects. Even if a significant amount of the organic material survived impact, the destructive processes in the hydrothermal vents would remove these compounds on the average in 10(exp 7) yrs or less. If it is assumed that the input rate was sufficient to overcome these destructive processes, then too much carbon and water, especially from comets, would have been added to the surface of the earth. It was concluded that while some organic material was added to the earth from comets and meteorites, the amount available from these sources at a given time was only a few percent of that from earth based syntheses

    Metal cooldown, flow instability, and heat transfer in two-phase hydrogen flow

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    Studies of the properties of five metals with varying tube-wall thickness, with or without and internal coating of trifluorochloroethylene polymer, show that wall characteristics influence flow stability, affect heat transfer coefficients, and influence the transition point from dry- to wet-wall flow

    Microwave backscattering theory and active remote sensing of the ocean surface

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    The status is reviewed of electromagnetic scattering theory relative to the interpretation of microwave remote sensing data acquired from spaceborne platforms over the ocean surface. Particular emphasis is given to the assumptions which are either implicit or explicit in the theory. The multiple scale scattering theory developed during this investigation is extended to non-Gaussian surface statistics. It is shown that the important statistic for the case is the probability density function of the small scale heights conditioned on the large scale slopes; this dependence may explain the anisotropic scattering measurements recently obtained with the AAFE Radscat. It is noted that present surface measurements are inadequate to verify or reject the existing scattering theories. Surface measurements are recommended for qualifying sensor data from radar altimeters and scatterometers. Additional scattering investigations are suggested for imaging type radars employing synthetically generated apertures

    Development of mathematical models for processing S-193 radar altimeter data

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    There are no author-identified significant results in this report

    Development of mathematical models for processing altimeter data

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    There are no author-identified significant results in this report

    Acquisition of quick-look data from SL-2

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    There are no author-identified significant results in this report

    Altimeter waveform software design

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    Techniques are described for preprocessing raw return waveform data from the GEOS-3 radar altimeter. Topics discussed include: (1) general altimeter data preprocessing to be done at the GEOS-3 Data Processing Center to correct altimeter waveform data for temperature calibrations, to convert between engineering and final data units and to convert telemetered parameter quantities to more appropriate final data distribution values: (2) time "tagging" of altimeter return waveform data quantities to compensate for various delays, misalignments and calculational intervals; (3) data processing procedures for use in estimating spacecraft attitude from altimeter waveform sampling gates; and (4) feasibility of use of a ground-based reflector or transponder to obtain in-flight calibration information on GEOS-3 altimeter performance
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