10,631 research outputs found

    The Multilateral Instrument: Avoidance of Permanent Establishment Status and the Reservations on behalf of Australia and the UK

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    This paper considers fully probabilistic system models. Each transition is quantified with a probability—its likelihood of occurrence. Properties are expressed as automata that either accept or reject system runs. The central question is to determine the fraction of accepted system runs. We also consider probabilistic timed system models. Their properties are timed automata that accept timed runs iff all timing constraints resent in the automaton are met; otherwise it rejects. The central question is to determine the fraction of accepted timed system runs

    Barriers to Freedom of Contract in the Public Sector

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    Currently twenty-four states have "right-to-work" laws, which primarily restrict the rights of workers and employers in the private sector from entering into certain kinds of labor contracts. Federal labor law mandates that unions represent all workers at a workplace, whether they are dues-paying members of the union or not. Meanwhile, state "right-to-work" laws prohibit workers and employers from signing contracts that require all covered workers to contribute to the costs of representation regardless of whether or not the workers choose to join the union

    Women?s Status and Children?s Food Security in Nepal

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    This paper focuses on gender aspects upon children?s food security. Using data from the 1995/1996 Nepal Living Standards Survey, this study attempts to find evidence to whether children are heavier for their age, taller for their age or heavier for their height in families where mother?s intra-family status is relatively better. The relationship between mother?s intra-family status and children?s food security was analyzed with a linear model, where on the left hand side are children?s anthropometric z-scores and on the right hand side women?s status indicators and other factors affecting children?s food security. The test received significant positive evidence for the mother?s knowledge upon birth controlling, mother?s age at childbirth and the inter-spousal education difference. The boy preference shows in the results.women?s status, gender, food security, children, Nepal, Asia

    Women?s Status and Child Labour in Nepal

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    This paper uses data from the Nepal Living Standards Survey 2 (2003/2004) to find evidence to whether children are less likely to work and more likely to attend school in a household where the mother has a say in the intra-family decision-making, than in one where the father holds all the power. This is done by using a bivariate probit model with two dependent variables: child labour and school attendance. The results support the hypothesis that in households where mothers have bargaining power, measured in particular with mother?s non-labour income (remittances), mother?s marriage age and her awareness of fertility controlling, children are less likely to be sent to work. They are also more likely to attend school.women?s status, gender, child labour, schooling, Nepal, Asia

    Regulation of Public Sector Collective Bargaining in the States

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    While the unionization of most private-sector workers is governed by the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA), the legal scope of collective bargaining for state and local public-sector workers is the domain of states and, where states allow it, local authorities. This hodge-podge of state-and-local legal frameworks is complicated enough, but recent efforts in Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, and other states have left the legal rights of public-sector workers even less transparent.In this report, we review the legal rights and limitations on public-sector bargaining in the 50 states and the District of Columbia, as of January 2014. Given the legal complexities, we focus on three sets of workers who make up almost half of all unionized public-sector workers: teachers, police, and firefighters, with some observations, where possible, on other state-and-local workers. For each group of workers, we examine whether public-sector workers have the right to bargain collectively; whether that right includes the ability to bargain over wages; and whether public-sector workers have the right to strike

    No. 07: Rapid Urbanization and the Nutrition Transition in Southern Africa

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    The nutrition transition, including the presence of malnutrition and obesity in poor urban populations (the so-called ‘double burden’ of disease), is occurring in Southern Africa in the context of massive rural-urban migration and rapid urbanization. This seemingly contradictory situation poses one of the major threats to public health in the developing world, and impacts the poor – and therefore the most food insecure – to the greatest extent. This paper reviews the state of knowledge about food insecurity and the nutrition transition in the urban areas of Southern Africa drawing on existing studies and new research conducted by AFSUN. The paper lays out an agenda for future research on nutrition environments and discusses the implications of undernutrition and overnutrition for urban policy making on health and food security in the region

    No-Vacation Nation Revisited

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    This report reviews the most recently available data from a range of national and international sources on statutory requirements for paid vacations and paid holidays in 21 rich countries (16 European countries, Australia, Canada, Japan, New Zealand, and the United States). In addition to our finding that the United States is the only country in the group that does not require employers to provide paid vacation time, we also note that several foreign countries offer additional time off for younger and older workers, shift workers, and those engaged in community service including jury duty. Five countries even mandate that employers pay vacationing workers a small premium above their standard pay in order to help with vacation-related expenses. Most other rich countries have also established legal rights to paid holidays over and above paid vacation days. We distinguish throughout the report between paid vacation -- or paid annual leave, terms we use interchangeably -- and paid holidays, which are organized around particular fixed dates in the calendar. Our analysis does not cover paid leave for other reasons such as sick leave, parental leave, or leave to care for sick relatives
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