2,976 research outputs found

    A pathogenetic link between non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and celiac disease

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    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has recently been recognized as the leading cause of the abnormalities in the liver function tests in the Western countries. Celiac disease (CD) is a permanent immunological intolerance to gluten proteins in genetically predisposed individuals. CD has been reported in 4-13 % of the cases with steatohepatitis, although the pathogenesis of the liver steatosis in CD patients is unclear. Based on the literature data, it can be concluded that the inclusion of serological markers of CD should be a part of the general workup in the patients with steatosis when other causes of the liver disease are excluded and in the patients with NAFLD when metabolic risk factors are not evident

    Analysis of the impact of fruit growing development on the intensity of soil erosion and runoff: Case study of krusevo, bijelo polje, Montenegro

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    The research has been conducted to analyse the effects of land use change of the impact of fruit growing development on the intensity of soil erosion and runoff in the Study area of Krusevo, Bijelo Polje, Montenegro by using the Intensity of Erosion and Outflow – IntErO model of Spalevic. The required spatial maps, land use, soil and geology were prepared and analysed in GIS environment. The climatic data such as the volume of the torrential rain, average annual air temperature and average annual precipitation were calculated based on meteorological data received from the State Hydrological Institute for the region of Bijelo Polje (Montenegro). The results of land use change between these two periods (2011-2020) shown that the forest increased in the studied region by 1.57%. Specifically, degraded forests increased by 1.02%; Well-constituted forests increased by 0.55%. For the studied area we calculated forested area on 57.26% (2011), and 58.83% (2020). The values for Meadows in the studied area decreased from 2011 to 2020 for 1.67%; and for Pastures for 1.40%. Plough-lands decreased for the observed period for 1.59%. On the other hand, the surface under the Orchards increased by 3.09%, and that represented the shift from the Meadows to the Orchards; the shift from the Pastures to the Forests. This denser vegetation at the studied region for the observed period (increase of the forests and orchards) has led to higher water infiltration rate into the soil and at the same time to decrease of the sediment yield. The value of Z coefficient of 0.462 (2011); 0.461 (2020) indicates slight decrease of erosion processes because of the fruit growing development with shifting the meadows to orchards categorising the processes to the 3rd destruction category. The strength of the erosion process is medium, and according to the erosion type, it is surface erosion. Production of erosion material in the river basin, W year, is calculated on 11327 m3year-1 for 2011; and 11278 m3 year-1 for 2020, what shown the decrease of erosion processes because of the subject fruit growing development. Coefficient of the deposit retention (sediment delivery ratio) is calculated as 0.299 what means that 30% of the total eroded material reaches to the outlet point. Real soil losses, G year, are calculated on 3392 m3 year-1 (2011), and 3377 (2020); Real soil losses per km2, G year km-2, are 262 m3 km-2 year-1 (2011), and 261 m3km-2 year-1 (2020), with the same conclusion in relation to the fruit growing initiatives and the values indicates that the river basin belongs to 5th destruction category; it is a region of very weak erosion. The results showed that the appropriate land management and planning with implementing fruit growing in this area decreases maximum flow rate and also sediment yield. The application of the IntErO model may also be further used to understand the effect of land use change with new establishing of the fruit growing in the river basins on hydrological behaviour, soil erosion and sediment yield process and can be used as a useful tool in similar for fruit growing and soil conservation research

    Polyphenols and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease: impact and mechanisms:impact and mechanisms

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    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered to be the hepatic component of the metabolic syndrome and its prevalence is rapidly increasing due to its strong association with insulin resistance and obesity. At present, given that NAFLD is highly prevalent and therapies are limited, much attention is focused on identifying effective dietary strategies for the prevention and treatment of the disease. Polyphenols are a group of plant bioactive compounds whose regular consumption have been associated with a reduction in the risk of a number of metabolic disorders associated with NAFLD. Here we review the emerging and relatively consistent evidence from cell culture and rodent studies showing that select polyphenols positively modulate a variety of contributors to the NAFLD phenotype, through diverse and complementary mechanisms of action. In particular, the reduction of de novo lipogenesis (via sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c) and increased fatty acid β-oxidation, presumably involving AMP-activated protein kinase activation, will be discussed. The indirect antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of polyphenols which have been reported to contribute to the amelioration of NAFLD will also be addressed. In addition to a direct study of the liver, rodent studies have provided insight into the impact of polyphenols on adipose tissue function and whole body insulin sensitivity, which are likely to in part modulate their impact on NAFLD development. Finally an overview of the limited data from clinical trials will be given along with a discussion of the dose extrapolation from animal studies to human subjects

    Effects of mechanical ventilation at low lung volume on respiratory mechanics and nitric oxide exhalation in normal rabbits

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    Lung mechanics, exhaled NO (NOe), and TNF-(alpha) in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assessed in eight closed and eight open chest, normal anesthetized rabbits undergoing prolonged (3-4 h) mechanical ventilation (MV) at low volume with physiological tidal volumes (10 ml/kg). Relative to initial MV on positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), MV at low volume increased lung quasi-static elastance (+267 and +281%), airway (+471 and +382%) and viscolelastic resistance (+480 and +294%), and decreased NOe (-42 and -25%) in closed and open chest rabbits, respectively. After restoration of PEEP, viscoelastic resistance returned to control, whereas airway resistance remained elevated (+120 and +31%) and NOe low (-25 and -20%) in both groups of rabbits. Elastance remained elevated (+23%) only in closed-chest animals, being associated with interstitial pulmonary edema, as reflected by increased lung wet-to-dry weight ratio with normal albumin concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. In contrast, in 16 additional closed- and open-chest rabbits, there were no changes of lung mechanics or NOe after prolonged MV on PEEP only. At the end of prolonged MV, TNF-(alpha) was practically undetectable in serum, whereas its concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was low and similar in animals subjected or not subjected to ventilation at low volume (62 vs. 43 pg/ml). These results indicate that mechanical injury of peripheral airways due to their cyclic opening and closing during ventilation at low volume results in changes in lung mechanics and reduction in NOe and that these alterations are not mediated by a proinflammatory process, since this is expressed by TNF-(alpha) levels

    Anthropometric and physical characteristics allow differentiation of young female volleyball players according to playing position and level of expertise

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    The aim of our study was to determine the differences in some anthropometric and physical performance variables of young Croatian female volleyball players (aged 13 to 15) in relation to playing position (i.e., independent variable) and performance level within each position (i.e., independent variable). Players were categorized according to playing position (i.e., role) as middle blockers (n=28), opposite hitters (n=41), passer-hitters (n=54), setters (n=30), and liberos (n=28). Within each position, players were divided into a more successful group and a less successful group according to team ranking in the latest regional championship and player quality within the team. Height and body mass, somatotype by the Heath-Carter method, and four tests of lower body power, speed, agility and upper body power (i.e., dependent variables) were assessed. Players in different positions differed significantly in height and all three somatotype components, but no significant differences were found in body mass, body mass index or measured physical performance variables. Players of different performance level differed significantly in both anthropometric and physical performance variables. Generally, middle blockers were taller, more ectomorphic, less mesomorphic and endomorphic, whereas liberos were shorter, less ectomorphic, more mesomorphic and endomorphic than players in other positions. More successful players in all positions had a lower body mass index, were less mesomorphic and endomorphic, and more ectomorphic than less successful players. Furthermore, more successful players showed better lower body power, speed, agility and upper body power. The results of this study can potentially provide coaches with useful indications about the use of somatotype selection and physical performance assessment for talent identification and development

    Can statin preventative treatment inform geroscience-guided therapeutics?

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    : Potential senotherapeutic effect of statins may lead to prevention and reduction of frailty

    Exacerbations and lung function decline in COPD: New insights in current and ex-smokers

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    SummaryAimTo investigate whether there is a significant relationship between an increased frequency of exacerbations and the rate of forced expiratory volume in 1s (FEV1) decline in COPD patients.Methods–measurementsAbout 102 COPD patients (44 smokers, 58 ex-smokers) participated in a 3-year prospective study. Exacerbations were identified as worsening of patient's respiratory symptoms as recorded on diary cards. Spirometry was performed every 6 months. The effect of frequent exacerbations on lung function was investigated using random effects models.ResultsThe median (mean(95% CI)) annual exacerbation rate was 2.85 (3.1 (2.7–3.6)). Patients with an annual exacerbation rate over the median rate had significantly lower baseline post-bronchodilation FEV1(%pred), higher MRC dyspnoea score and chronic cough compared to patients who had an annual exacerbation rate less than the median. The average annual rate of FEV1(%pred), adjusted for smoking decline (ΔFEV1), was found significantly increased in frequent compared to infrequent exacerbators (P=0.017). The highest ΔFEV1 was observed in smokers frequent exacerbators and a significant interaction between exacerbation frequency and ΔFEV1 was also observed in ex-smokers.ConclusionsOur findings suggest that an increased frequency of exacerbations is significantly associated with FEV1 decline even in ex-smokers. Thus, smoking and frequent exacerbations may have both negative impact on lung function. Smoking cessation and prevention of exacerbations should be a major target in COPD

    Anaerobiosis influences virulence properties of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis isolates and the interaction with Staphylococcus aureus

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    The airways of individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) are abundantly colonised by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Co-infecting hypoxic regions of static mucus within CF airways, together with decreases in pulmonary function, mucus plugging and oxygen consumption by host neutrophils gives rise to regions of anoxia. This study determined the impact of anaerobiosis upon S. aureus-P. aeruginosa interactions in planktonic co-culture and mixed species biofilms in vitro. Whilst anoxia reduced the ability for P. aeruginosa CF isolates to dominate over S. aureus, this occurred in an isolate dependent manner. Investigations into the underlying mechanisms suggest that the anti-staphylococcal compound facilitating P. aeruginosa dominance under normoxia and anoxia is greater than 3 kDa in size and is heat-stable. Not all interspecies interactions studied were antagonistic, as S. aureus exoproducts were shown to restore and enhance P. aeruginosa motility under normoxia and anoxia in an isolate dependent manner. Collectively, this study suggests changes in oxygen availability within regions of the CF lung is likely to influence interspecies interactions and in turn, potentially influence disease progression
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