1,516 research outputs found

    Size and asymmetry of the reaction entrance channel: influence on the probability of neck production

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    The results of experiments performed to investigate the Ni+Al, Ni+Ni, Ni+Ag reactions at 30 MeV/nucleon are presented. From the study of dissipative midperipheral collisions, it has been possible to detect events in which Intermediate Mass Fragments (IMF) production takes place. The decay of a quasi-projectile has been identified; its excitation energy leads to a multifragmentation totally described in terms of a statistical disassembly of a thermalized system (T≃\simeq4 MeV, E∗≃^*\simeq4 MeV/nucleon). Moreover, for the systems Ni+Ni, Ni+Ag, in the same nuclear reaction, a source with velocity intermediate between that of the quasi-projectile and that of the quasi-target, emitting IMF, is observed. The fragments produced by this source are more neutron rich than the average matter of the overall system, and have a charge distribution different, with respect to those statistically emitted from the quasi-projectile. The above features can be considered as a signature of the dynamical origin of the midvelocity emission. The results of this analysis show that IMF can be produced via different mechanisms simultaneously present within the same collision. Moreover, once fixed the characteristics of the quasi-projectile in the three considered reactions (in size, excitation energy and temperature), one observes that the probability of a partner IMF production via dynamical mechanism has a threshold (not present in the Ni+Al case) and increases with the size of the target nucleus.Comment: 16 pages, 7 figures, accepted for publication on Nuclear Physics

    Inauguration of the Centro 3R for the promotion of 3Rs principles in teaching and research.

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    the first European interuniversity center dedicated to promoting 3Rs principles in teaching and research was inaugurated in Pisa, Italy on March 14, 2018. The Centro 3R was spearheaded by the Universities of Pisa and Genoa. Membership is open to all Italian universities and agreements for twinning across Europe and other countries are being pursued. the Centro\u2019s mission to promote rational and scientific thinking in experimental science through a multidisciplinary teaching and research approach inclusive of all 3Rs as a means to accelerate the R of replacement. The projects to develop an open resource-sharing web platform and interdisciplinary elective courses were also mentioned

    Effects of recreational scuba diving on Mediterranean fishes: evidence of involuntary feeding?

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    Despite a large body of literature assessing the impacts of recreational scuba diving on marine habitats, little attention has been paid to the potentially harmful effects this has on fishes. The aim of this study was the assessment of the immediate response of different fish species to divers’ activities. A decrease of fishes’ natural diffidence towards divers is shown, probably due to an enhanced availability of their prey as a result of divers’ contacts with the substrate

    Isotopic Composition of Fragments in Nuclear Multifragmentation

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    The isotope yields of fragments, produced in the decay of the quasiprojectile in Au+Au peripheral collisions at 35 MeV/nucleon and those coming from the disassembly of the unique source formed in Xe+Cu central reactions at 30 MeV/nucleon, were measured. We show that the relative yields of neutron-rich isotopes increase with the excitation energy in multifragmentation reaction. In the framework of the statistical multifragmentation model which fairly well reproduces the experimental observables, this behaviour can be explained by increasing N/Z ratio of hot primary fragments, that corresponds to the statistical evolution of the decay mechanism with the excitation energy: from a compound-like decay to complete multifragmentation.Comment: 10 pages. 4 Postscript figures. Submitted to Physical Review C, Rapid Communicatio

    Ageing and creeping management in major accident plants according to seveso III directive

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    The focus of this paper is the management of critical equipment ageing within the context of lower and upper tier Seveso process plants, with a peculiar insight into the effectiveness of safety management systems in setting-up reliable procedure for critical element identification. Recent research studies in fact evidenced that in Europe nearly 50% of major 'loss of containment' events, arising from technical plant failures, were primarily due to ageing plant mechanisms such as erosion, corrosion and fatigue. The critical ageing elements should be included in maintenance, inspection and periodic monitoring programs in relation to their reliability, as assumed in the risk assessment and their lifetime or frequency ranges, based on their operational experience. This paper will accurately discuss how the issue of ageing is currently handled in the process industry. The methodology builds on the critical results of actual findings from the inspections on the safety management systems of major accident plants, which were performed by a working group. The primary objective is to stimulate the introduction of effective ageing management changes into the safety management of companies, by taking advantages of findings of the previous assessment and establishing proper and effective audits

    Plastic adjustments of biparental care behavior across embryonic development under elevated temperature in a marine ectotherm

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    Phenotypic plasticity in parental care investment allows organisms to promptly respond to rapid environmental changes by potentially benefiting offspring survival and thus parental fitness. To date, a knowledge gap exists on whether plasticity in parental care behaviors can mediate responses to climate change in marine ectotherms. Here, we assessed the plasticity of parental care investment under elevated temperatures in a gonochoric marine annelid with biparental care, Ophryotrocha labronica, and investigated its role in maintaining the reproductive success of this species in a warming ocean. We measured the time individuals spent carrying out parental care activities across three phases of embryonic development, as well as the hatching success of the offspring as a proxy for reproductive success, at control (24℃) and elevated (27℃) temperature conditions. Under elevated temperature, we observed: (a) a significant decrease in total parental care activity, underpinned by a decreased in male and simultaneous parental care activity, in the late stage of embryonic development; and (b) a reduction in hatching success that was however not significantly related to changes in parental care activity levels. These findings, along with the observed unaltered somatic growth of parents and decreased brood size, suggest that potential cost-benefit trade-offs between offspring survival (i.e., immediate fitness) and parents' somatic condition (i.e., longer-term fitness potential) may occur under ongoing ocean warming. Finally, our results suggest that plasticity in parental care behavior is a mechanism able to partially mitigate the negative effects of temperature-dependent impacts

    Isotopic composition of fragments in multifragmentation of very large nuclear systems: effects of the chemical equilibrium

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    Studies on the isospin of fragments resulting from the disassembly of highly excited large thermal-like nuclear emitting sources, formed in the ^{197}Au + ^{197}Au reaction at 35 MeV/nucleon beam energy, are presented. Two different decay systems (the quasiprojectile formed in midperipheral reactions and the unique source coming from the incomplete fusion of projectile and target in the most central collisions) were considered; these emitting sources have the same initial N/Z ratio and excitation energy (E^* ~= 5--6 MeV/nucleon), but different size. Their charge yields and isotopic content of the fragments show different distributions. It is observed that the neutron content of intermediate mass fragments increases with the size of the source. These evidences are consistent with chemical equilibrium reached in the systems. This fact is confirmed by the analysis with the statistical multifragmentation model.Comment: 9 pages, 4 ps figure

    Quantitative extensions of reaction systems based on SOS semantics

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    Reaction systems (RSs) are a successful natural computing framework inspired by chemical reaction networks. A RS consists of a set of entities and a set of reactions. Entities can enable or inhibit each reaction and are produced by reactions or provided by the environment. In this paper, we define two quantitative variants of RSs: the first one is along the time dimension, to specify delays for making available reactions products and durations to protract their permanency, while the second deals with the possibility to specify different concentration levels of a substance in order to enable or inhibit a reaction. Technically, both extensions are obtained by modifying in a modular way the Structural Operational Semantics (SOS) for RSs that was already defined in the literature. Our approach maintains several advantages of the original semantics definition that were: (1) providing a formal specification of the RS dynamics that enables the reuse of many formal analysis techniques and favours the implementation of tools, and (2) making the RS framework extensible, by adding or changing some of the SOS rules in a compositional way. We provide a prototype logic programming implementation and apply our tool to three different case studies: the tumour growth, the Th cell differentiation in the immune system and neural communication
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