978 research outputs found

    High-dimensional and Permutation Invariant Anomaly Detection

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    Methods for anomaly detection of new physics processes are often limited to low-dimensional spaces due to the difficulty of learning high-dimensional probability densities. Particularly at the constituent level, incorporating desirable properties such as permutation invariance and variable-length inputs becomes difficult within popular density estimation methods. In this work, we introduce a permutation-invariant density estimator for particle physics data based on diffusion models, specifically designed to handle variable-length inputs. We demonstrate the efficacy of our methodology by utilizing the learned density as a permutation-invariant anomaly detection score, effectively identifying jets with low likelihood under the background-only hypothesis. To validate our density estimation method, we investigate the ratio of learned densities and compare to those obtained by a supervised classification algorithm.Comment: 7 pages, 5 figure

    CaloScore v2: Single-shot Calorimeter Shower Simulation with Diffusion Models

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    Diffusion generative models are promising alternatives for fast surrogate models, producing high-fidelity physics simulations. However, the generation time often requires an expensive denoising process with hundreds of function evaluations, restricting the current applicability of these models in a realistic setting. In this work, we report updates on the CaloScore architecture, detailing the changes in the diffusion process, which produces higher quality samples, and the use of progressive distillation, resulting in a diffusion model capable of generating new samples with a single function evaluation. We demonstrate these improvements using the Calorimeter Simulation Challenge 2022 dataset.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

    Point Cloud Transformers applied to Collider Physics

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    Methods for processing point cloud information have seen a great success in collider physics applications. One recent breakthrough in machine learning is the usage of Transformer networks to learn semantic relationships between sequences in language processing. In this work, we apply a modified Transformer network called Point Cloud Transformer as a method to incorporate the advantages of the Transformer architecture to an unordered set of particles resulting from collision events. To compare the performance with other strategies, we study jet-tagging applications for highly-boosted particles.Comment: 12 pages, 3 figure

    ABCNet: An attention-based method for particle tagging

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    In high energy physics, graph-based implementations have the advantage of treating the input data sets in a similar way as they are collected by collider experiments. To expand on this concept, we propose a graph neural network enhanced by attention mechanisms called ABCNet. To exemplify the advantages and flexibility of treating collider data as a point cloud, two physically motivated problems are investigated: quark-gluon discrimination and pileup reduction. The former is an event-by-event classification while the latter requires each reconstructed particle to receive a classification score. For both tasks ABCNet shows an improved performance compared to other algorithms available.Comment: 13 pages, 5 figure

    Highlights on top quark measurements from CMS

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    Recent results from the CMS Collaboration using top quarks are presented. These results are based on partial datasets collected by the CMS Collaboration during the LHC Run 2, at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. This document includes the first measurement of production in association with charm quarks, the first direct measurement of the third generation of the CKM matrix elements, the investigation of the running of the top quark mass, search for CP violation in top quark production, measurement of the forward-backward asymmetry in production at the LHC, and the first global approach in constraining EFT operator coefficients using top quarks

    Fast Point Cloud Generation with Diffusion Models in High Energy Physics

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    Many particle physics datasets like those generated at colliders are described by continuous coordinates (in contrast to grid points like in an image), respect a number of symmetries (like permutation invariance), and have a stochastic dimensionality. For this reason, standard deep generative models that produce images or at least a fixed set of features are limiting. We introduce a new neural network simulation based on a diffusion model that addresses these limitations named Fast Point Cloud Diffusion (FPCD). We show that our approach can reproduce the complex properties of hadronic jets from proton-proton collisions with competitive precision to other recently proposed models. Additionally, we use a procedure called progressive distillation to accelerate the generation time of our method, which is typically a significant challenge for diffusion models despite their state-of-the-art precision.Comment: 11 pages, 8 figure

    Refining Fast Calorimeter Simulations with a Schr\"{o}dinger Bridge

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    Machine learning-based simulations, especially calorimeter simulations, are promising tools for approximating the precision of classical high energy physics simulations with a fraction of the generation time. Nearly all methods proposed so far learn neural networks that map a random variable with a known probability density, like a Gaussian, to realistic-looking events. In many cases, physics events are not close to Gaussian and so these neural networks have to learn a highly complex function. We study an alternative approach: Schr\"{o}dinger bridge Quality Improvement via Refinement of Existing Lightweight Simulations (SQuIRELS). SQuIRELS leverages the power of diffusion-based neural networks and Schr\"{o}dinger bridges to map between samples where the probability density is not known explicitly. We apply SQuIRELS to the task of refining a classical fast simulation to approximate a full classical simulation. On simulated calorimeter events, we find that SQuIRELS is able to reproduce highly non-trivial features of the full simulation with a fraction of the generation time.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

    Improving Generative Model-based Unfolding with Schr\"{o}dinger Bridges

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    Machine learning-based unfolding has enabled unbinned and high-dimensional differential cross section measurements. Two main approaches have emerged in this research area: one based on discriminative models and one based on generative models. The main advantage of discriminative models is that they learn a small correction to a starting simulation while generative models scale better to regions of phase space with little data. We propose to use Schroedinger Bridges and diffusion models to create SBUnfold, an unfolding approach that combines the strengths of both discriminative and generative models. The key feature of SBUnfold is that its generative model maps one set of events into another without having to go through a known probability density as is the case for normalizing flows and standard diffusion models. We show that SBUnfold achieves excellent performance compared to state of the art methods on a synthetic Z+jets dataset.Comment: 9 pages, 5 figure

    Comparison of Point Cloud and Image-based Models for Calorimeter Fast Simulation

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    Score based generative models are a new class of generative models that have been shown to accurately generate high dimensional calorimeter datasets. Recent advances in generative models have used images with 3D voxels to represent and model complex calorimeter showers. Point clouds, however, are likely a more natural representation of calorimeter showers, particularly in calorimeters with high granularity. Point clouds preserve all of the information of the original simulation, more naturally deal with sparse datasets, and can be implemented with more compact models and data files. In this work, two state-of-the-art score based models are trained on the same set of calorimeter simulation and directly compared.Comment: 11 pages, 6 figures, 1 tabl