416 research outputs found

    Check-rein technique for Achilles tendon elongation following conservative management for acute Achilles tendon ruptures: a two-year prospective clinical study

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    Background Following conservative management for acute Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures, the tendon may heal in continuity, and some patients may present with an elongated Achilles tendon-gastrosoleus complex. This study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of a novel minimally invasive technique, which we named "check-rein procedure", in patients with intact and elongated AT following conservative management for AT ruptures. Methods All patients who underwent the check-rein procedure for elongation of the gastrosoleus-AT complex by one experienced surgeon were prospectively enrolled. The AT resting angle (ATRA) and AT rupture score (ATRS) were assessed at baseline and repeated at 2-year follow-up, as were calf circumference and isometric plantarflexion strength of both ankles. Results Forty-three patients (43 procedures) were analysed. The mean time elapsed from injury to surgery was 28.7 +/- 7.9 weeks. The mean age at surgery was 38.5 +/- 5.7 years. At the last follow-up, ATRS, ATRA, isometric strength difference, and calf circumference of the affected side were increased (P < 0.0001). The rate of the return to sport was 98% (42 of 43). No wound complications or rupture were experienced by any patient. Conclusion The check-rein technique for AT elongation after conservative management of AT tears is effective and feasible to restore tendon length and calf function. The surgical outcome was influenced by the preoperative performance status, and longer time elapsed from injury to surgery worsens the outcomes

    Single versus double bundle in posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction: a meta-analysis

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    Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) reconstruction can be performed using single bundle (SB) and double bundle (DB) techniques. The present study investigated whether DB PCL reconstruction is superior to SB reconstruction in terms of patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) and joint stability. In December 2021 Embase, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Scopus databases were accessed. All clinical trials comparing SB versus DB reconstruction to address PCL insufficiency in skeletally mature patients were considered. Data from 483 procedures were retrieved. The mean follow-up was 31.0 (28.0 to 107.6) months, and the mean timespan between injury and surgery was 11.3 (6 to 37) months. The mean age of the patients was 29.3‚ÄȬĪ‚ÄČ3.8 years. 85 of 483 patients (18%) were women. At a mean of 31.0 months post reconstruction, ROM (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.03) was slightly greater in the SB group, while the Tegner score (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.03) and the Telos stress (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.04) were more favorable in the DB cohort. Similarity was found in instrumental laxity (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.4) and Lysholm score (P‚ÄČ=‚ÄČ0.3). The current evidence does not support the use of DB techniques for PCL reconstruction. Both methods could restore knee stability and motion with satisfactory short term patient reported outcome measures. Further high quality clinical trials are required to validate these results on a larger scale

    Autologous Bone Grafting in Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery: An Evidence-Based Narrative Review

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    Autologous bone grafting is common in trauma and orthopaedic surgery. Both the Reamer Irrigator Aspirator (RIA) and Iliac Crest Bone Graft (ICBG) aim to obtain autologous bone graft. Although the process of harvesting a bone graft is considered simple, complications may occur. This study examined morbidity and pain at the donor site, blood loss, and iatrogenic fractures, comparing RIA and ICBG. The source of the autologous bone graft, the alternative graft sites, and the storage modalities of the harvested bone marrow were also evaluated. In May 2021, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar were accessed, with no time constraints. RIA may produce greater blood loss, but with less morbidity and complications, making it a potential alternative source of bone grafting

    Melatonin and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: The present evidence

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    Adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is a multifactorial condition with genetic predisposing factors, and several causes have been put forward for its aetiopathogenesis, including possible hormonal dysfunction. Melatonin seems to play significant role in AIS

    Failed Surgery for Patellar Tendinopathy in Athletes: Midterm Results of Further Surgical Management

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    Background:Tendon injuries are commonly seen in sports medicine practice. Many elite players involved in high-impact activities develop patellar tendinopathy (PT) symptoms. Of them, a small percentage will develop refractory PT and need to undergo surgery. In some of these patients, surgery does not resolve these symptoms.Purpose:To report the clinical results in a cohort of athletes who underwent further surgery after failure of primary surgery for PT.Study Design:Case series; Level of evidence, 4.Methods:A total of 22 athletes who had undergone revision surgery for failed surgical management of PT were enrolled in the present study. Symptom severity was assessed through the Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment Scale for Patellar Tendinopathy (VISA-P) upon admission and at the final follow-up. Time to return to training, time to return to competition, and complications were also recorded.Results:The mean age of the athletes was 25.4 years, and the mean symptom duration from the index intervention was 15.3 months. At a mean follow-up of 30.0 +/- 4.9 months, the VISA-P score improved 27.8 points (P < .0001). The patients returned to training within a mean of 9.2 months. Fifteen patients (68.2%) returned to competition within a mean of 11.6 months. Of these 15 patients, a further 2 had decreased their performance, and 2 more had abandoned sports participation by the final follow-up. The overall rate of complications was 18.2%. One patient (4.5%) had a further revision procedure.Conclusion:Revision surgery was feasible and effective in patients in whom PT symptoms persisted after previous surgery for PT, achieving a statistically significant and clinically relevant improvement of the VISA-P score as well as an acceptable rate of return to sport at a follow-up of 30 months

    Slowed-Down Rehabilitation Following Percutaneous Repair of Achilles Tendon Rupture

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    Background: Following percutaneous repair of acute Achilles tendon (AT) ruptures, early postoperative weightbearing is advocated; however, it is debatable how aggressive rehabilitation should be. We compared the clinical and functional outcomes in 2 groups of patients who followed either our "traditional" or a "slowed down" rehabilitation after percutaneous surgical repair. Methods: Sixty patients were prospectively recruited to a slowed down (29 patients) or a traditional (31 patients) rehabilitation program. Both groups were allowed immediate weightbearing postoperatively; a removable brace with 5 heel wedges was applied at 2 weeks. In the slowed-down group, 1 wedge was removed after 4 weeks. Gradual removal of the boot took place after 4 wedges were kept for 4 weeks. In the traditional group, 1 wedge was removed every 2 weeks, with removal of the boot after 2 wedges had been kept for 2 weeks. The AT Resting Angle (ATRA) evaluated tendon elongation. Patient reported functional outcomes were assessed using the AT Rupture Score (ATRS). Calf circumference difference and the isometric plantarflexion strength of the gastro-soleus complex were evaluated. Results: At the 12-month follow-up, both ATRA and ATRS were more favorable in the slowed-down group. The isometric strength and the calf circumference were more similar to the contralateral leg in the slowed-down group than in the traditional one. Conclusion: Following percutaneous repair of acute Achilles tendon patients undergoing slowed down rehabilitation performed better than the traditional one. These conclusions must be considered within the limitations of the present study

    The double posteromedial portals endoscopy for posterior ankle impingement syndrome in athletes

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    Background Posterior ankle impingement syndrome (PAIS) may result from flexor hallucis longus tendinopathy, compression of the posterior process of the talus from the presence of an os trigonum, soft-tissue impingement, or a combination of these. Posterior extra-articular endoscopy performed with the patient supine through the double posteromedial portals, with excision of adhesions, excision of the posterior process of the talus or an os trigonum, and decompression of the tendon of the flexor hallucis longus (FHL), can be used in athletes with PAIS. Methods Thirty-four athletes with PAIS in whom conservative management had failed underwent posterior ankle endoscopy in the supine position using the double posteromedial portals. The patients were assessed pre- and postoperatively using the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society hindfoot scale score, the Tegner scale, and the simple visual analogue scale. Time of surgery, return to sports, patient satisfaction, and complications were recorded and analysed. The average length of postoperative follow-up was 26.7 +/- 12.6 (range 24 to 72) months. Results The mean Tegner activity scale score improved to 9 +/- 0.2 postoperatively (p < 0.05), while the mean American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scale score improved to 96 +/- 5.1 (range 87 to 100) postoperatively, with 29 of 34 patients (85.3%) achieving a perfect score of 100 (p < 0.05). The mean time to return to sports was 8.7 +/- 0.7 (range 8 to 10) weeks. The complication rate was low, with no superficial wound infections or venous thromboembolism events; only two patients (5.9%) reported pain and tenderness by 3 months after the index procedure. Conclusion Posterior ankle endoscopy for the resection of a posterior process of the talus or an os trigonum and decompression of the tendon of FHL is safe and allows excellent outcomes with low morbidity in athletes with PAIS

    Outcomes and complications of the reamer irrigator aspirator versus traditional iliac crest bone graft harvesting: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Background The reamer irrigator aspirator (RIA) is a relatively recent device that is placed in the medullary canal of long bones to harvest a large volume of bone marrow, which is collected in a filtered canister. This study compares outcomes and complications of the RIA versus a traditional iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) for the treatment of bone defects. Methods This meta-analysis was conducted according to the PRISMA guidelines. The Embase, Google Scholar, PubMed, and Scopus databases were accessed in June 2021. All clinical trials comparing the RIA and ICBG with a minimum of 6 months follow-up were included. Results Data from 4819 patients were collected. The RIA group demonstrated lower site pain (P < 0.0001), fewer infections (P = 0.001), and a lower rate of adverse events (P < 0.0001). The ICBG group demonstrated a greater rate of bone union (P < 0.0001). There was no difference between groups in VAS (P = 0.09) and mean time to union (P = 0.06). Conclusion The current evidence supports the use of the RIA, given its low morbidity and short learning curve

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) augmentation does not result in more favourable outcomes in arthroscopic meniscal repair: a meta-analysis

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    Background The efficacy and safety of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) augmentation for arthroscopic meniscal repair is controversial. This meta-analysis compared arthroscopic meniscal repair performed in isolation or augmented with PRP. Methods The present study was conducted according to PRISMA 2020 guidelines. Pubmed, Web of Science, Google Scholar and Embase were accessed in August 2021. All the clinical trials which compared arthroscopic meniscal repair performed in isolation or augmented with PRP were included. Results Eight hundred thirty-seven patients were included: 38% (318 of 837 patients) were women; the mean age of the patients was 35.6 (range, 20.8-64.3) years; the mean follow-up was 26.2 (range, 6-54) months. Similarity was found in analogue scale (VAS) (P = 0.5) and Lysholm (P = 0.9), and International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) scores (P = 0.9). Similarity was found in the rate of failure (P = 0.4) and rate of revision (P = 0.07). Conclusion The current published scientific evidence does not support PRP augmentation for arthroscopic meniscal repair

    Chondral injuries in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation: a systematic review

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    Background Patellar dislocations in patients presenting with recurrent patellofemoral instability can damage the surrounding structures, limiting patient's participation to recreational activities and quality of life. This study evaluated frequency, location, and extent of associated injuries in patients with recurrent patellar dislocation. Methods This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA checklist. PubMed, Google scholar, Embase, and Web of Science databases were accessed in July 2021. All the published clinical studies reporting frequency, location, and extent of soft tissue lesions in patients with recurrent patellar dislocations were accessed. Results Data from 9 articles (232 patients) were retrieved. The mean age of the included patients was 21.2 +/- 5.6 years. 84.8% of patients suffering from recurrent patellar dislocations demonstrated patellar chondral defects: medial facet (34.9%), while patellar crest (34.8%) and lateral facet (17%). 27.8% of patients demonstrated trochlear chondral injuries. Conclusion Chondral defects of the medial facet and the crest of the patella are the most common in patients with recurrent patellofemoral instability
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