81 research outputs found

    An Idea from NETI: Handouts with Gaps

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    “A Prey to Their Teeth”: Puritan Sermons and Ministerial Writings on Indians During King Philip’s War

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    King Philip’s War encouraged the construction of barbaric Native American typologies by puritan ministers through sermons and wartime histories. While select Algonquians in New England invested in a hybridized identity as a “Praying Indian” during the decades before the war, martial circumstances encouraged ministers to emphasize indigenous savagery, which outweighed earlier efforts to demonstrate the Christian piety of native converts. English texts outlining God’s providential wrath linked the contemporaneous war to Old Testament punishments meted out to the Hebrews. This typological reading of current events also superimposed the characteristics of heathen barbarians on Native Americans irrespective of their allegiance, offering an explanatory script for initial puritan losses and justifying harsh reprisals against dehumanized enemies. While Indian Christians struggled to support their English allies and demonstrate friendship and loyalty during the war, this hyperbolic rhetoric promoted patterns of violence and enmity which lasted beyond the immediate aftermath of the conflict and precluded later efforts to join New England’s religious community. The events of King Philip’s War and the religious impulses undergirding English understandings of barbarism laid the groundwork for eighteenth-century understandings of Indian savagery as an innate aspect of their nature

    A Communion of Churches: Indian Christians, English Ministers, and Congregations in New England, 1600-1775

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    This dissertation advances the study of New England\u27s religious history by exploring the complex and contested religious discourse surrounding puritan ecclesiology and the conceptual place of Native Americans within physical and imagined communities. While relations between puritan missionaries such as John Eliot and Thomas Mayhew and early Praying Indians, or Indian Christians, have been closely studied, this work draws attention to the importance of theology and religious discourse in realms like hermeneutics, ecclesiology, and eschatology in shaping the nature of these exchanges. Despite communal and cultural differences, religious culture frequently served as a means of bridging these gaps to foster amicable and meaningful relationships between English ministers and Algonquian-speaking Native Americans within the Massachusetts Bay Colony and its environs. At the same time, frustrations to actualize missionary communities like Natick in conformity with preconceived English ideals and violent altercations like King Philip\u27s War were similarly filtered through a milieu of religious ideas to solidify early categories of difference which reinforced the exclusion and marginalization of Native Americans from religious spaces.;With the arrival of Separatists at Plymouth in 1620 and the first puritans at Boston in 1630, English settlers entered a region dominated by native power. Anthropological examination of both groups reveals the importance of community dynamics, harmony, and wellbeing to both Englishmen and Native Americans. Both groups faced various challenges during these early contact years in the form of conceptually placing their new neighbors within an ontological schema, navigating trade and diplomacy, and confronting internal challenges of schism and disease. The onset of civil war in England in 1642 created new millennialist impulses for select puritans in New England, who read transatlantic events as a sign of the impending apocalypse and set out to convert Native Americans in fulfilment of biblical prophecy. Native Americans faced tremendous violence and pressure from family members in making the decision to form new religious communities in partnership with these missionaries, which makes the religious impetus a significant factor in explaining indigenous decision-making.;The transition from civil polity to ecclesiastical polity took nearly a decade for Natick, and this work argues that these developments paralleled internal debates regarding puritanism and the Half-Way Covenant, validating indigenous religiosity in new ways, though these positive developments proved short-lived with the onset of King Philip\u27s War and popular rhetoric portraying Indians as Canaanite heathens destined for destruction. The status of Indian Christians proved tenuous as the region entered the eighteenth century, though new developments by Solomon Stoddard created the potential to increase the boundaries of English religious communities to include Native Americans. The period of revivalism that swept New England from roughly 1735 to 1750 also raised questions about indigenous religious experiences and participation, leading to a strong critique from the antirevivalist faction. This long view of religious interaction adds more depth to the failure of mid-century missions by Gideon Hawley, John Brainerd, and Eleazar Wheelock. At the same time, Indian Christians like Samson Occom chafed against and challenged prevailing religious discrimination against their brethren

    The effect of area ratio on microjet array heat transfer

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    a b s t r a c t The heat transfer performance of five submerged and confined microjet arrays using air and deionized water as the working fluids was investigated. Both inline and staggered array arrangements of jet with diameters of 54 and 112 lm were investigated, and the area ratio (total area of the jets divided by the surface area) was varied between 0.036 and 0.35. Reynolds numbers defined by the jet diameter were in the range of 180-5100 for air and 50-3500 for water. A heat flux of 1100 W/cm 2 was obtained at a fluid inlet-to-surface temperature difference of less than 30°C. The results were compared with established correlations, and no evidence was found to suggest that the behavior of submerged and confined jets at the microscale is fundamentally different than at the macroscale. Reynolds number, Prandtl number, and area ratio were found to significantly affect the heat transfer performance, and a curve fit was developed, which correlated 290 of the 295 data points within ±25% with an MAE of 11%

    Girls in Colonial British and French North America

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    Harvard Indian College

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    BOOK ABSTRACT: Divided into four volumes, Race and Ethnicity in America provides a complete overview of the history of racial and ethnic relations in America, from pre-contact to the present. The five hundred years since Europeans made contact with the indigenous peoples of America have been dominated by racial and ethnic tensions. During the colonial period, from 1500 to 1776, slavery and servitude of whites, blacks, and Indians formed the foundation for race and ethnic relations. After the American Revolution, slavery, labor inequalities, and immigration led to racial and ethnic tensions; after the Civil War, labor inequalities, immigration, and the fight for civil rights dominated America\u27s racial and ethnic experience. From the 1960s to the present, the unfulfilled promise of civil rights for all ethnic and racial groups in America has been the most important sociopolitical issue in America.Race and Ethnicity in America tells this story of the fight for equality in America. The first volume spans pre-contact to the American Revolution; the second, the American Revolution to the Civil War; the third, Reconstruction to the Civil Rights Movement; and the fourth, the Civil Rights Movement to the present. All volumes explore the culture, society, labor, war and politics, and cultural expressions of racial and ethnic groups
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