61 research outputs found

    Impact of the Student Doctor Ceremony and Receiving a White Coat Before Clinical Clerkship Among Medical Students

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    The first white coat ceremony took place at a Japanese medical school in 2001 and was designed to reaffirm the responsibilities of medical students becoming student doctors(SDs)prior to their clinical clerkships. Dokkyo Medical University has been holding an SD ceremony, rather than a white coat ceremony, since March of 2014. White coats adorned with the school emblem and students’ names were distributed to students after the SD ceremony for the first time in 2018. Using an anonymous questionnaire, this study examined changes in the students’ moods before and after the SD ceremony as well as their impressions of the white coat.Of 115 responses, 106 with valid data were analyzed. The mean age was 23.44 years. The results indicated that students felt more cheerful, nervous, motivated, hopeful, steadfast, active, and restless after the ceremony than before, with 79.2% of the students reporting a favorable opinion of the white coat adorned with the school’s emblem. Additionally, the top three meanings associated with the white coat were cleanliness, uniform, and propriety.This study revealed the impact of the SD ceremony and the meanings of the white coat among medical students. Both the SD ceremony and white coat ceremony are worthy of future examination

    ホンガク ドウソウ カイイン ノ キンム ジョウキョウ : ジョセイ イシ シエン オ メザス ヨビテキ ケンキュウ トシテ

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    雇用の分野における男女の均等な機会及び待遇の確保のために,「男女雇用機会均等法」が成立し,妊娠や出産を理由として職場で不利益な取り扱いをすることは禁じられている1).さらに,「男女共同参画社会基本法」が施行され,2006 年には日本医師会に男女共同参画委員会が設立している2).しかし,我が国の女性医師の就労に影響を与える因子を検討した先行研究によると,性差による就労上の不利益を経験した女性医師が多く,就労格差を女性医師は強く認識しているという結論となっている3).このことは日本ばかりではなく,海外でも同様に報告されている4,5).特に,女性医師は男性医師に比較して,非常勤パートタイムで勤務することが多いと報告されている3,4).パートタイムで働く主たる理由は,出産と子育てである5).多くの女性医師が子育てを優先するために仕方なくパートタイム勤務を選択していることは事実である.また,母性を優先させる選択は職場での昇進・キャリアアップを閉ざすという結果につながる 3).しかし,一方で女性にとって出産や育児は非常に大切な母性の獲得であり,出産を経験した女性医師は医師を職業として選択したことにより満足していると報告されている6).これが女性医師にとってのワーク・ライフ・バランスのジレンマになっている.さらに,現在,医師を養成する大学医学部では,男女は平等に入学できるが,過酷な労働を強いられる大学病院では,女性医師は常勤勤務から離職せざるを得なくなるというアンバランスが生じている.本研究は,本学の女性医師支援のあり方を考える予備的研究として,本学同窓会会員の現況報告を検討し,さらに女性医師支援に関する先行文献を考察することを目的とした

    チイキ ホウカツ イリョウ ジッシュウ ノ ジュコウセイ ノ トクセイ ト ソノ キョウイク コウカ ニ カンスル ケンキュウ

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    全国的に地域枠入学者による医学部定員増加が行われている.それに伴い医学部では,より良い地域医療教育の導入が求められている.そこで本研究は,地域医療を目指す学生の特性を知るとともに地域医療教育の効果を学生の自己評価点とSOC (Sense of Coherence) 得点の地域教育導入前後比較により検討することを目的とした.調査対象は,獨協医科大学医学部第1学年おける地域包括医療実習受講生の16名( 男子9名,女子7名:平均年齢18.9±1.0歳) と非受講生の1年生98名( 男子66名,女子32名:平均年齢19.9±1.7歳) である.平成22 年7 月15 日に対象者全員に対して研究の説明を行い,文書による研究参加への同意を得た後,行動規範26項目の自己評価 (7 点満点) とSense of Coherence (SOC) 29 項目及び生活習慣に関する質問12 項目に回答する自記式アンケート調査を行った.さらに,平成22 年12 月11 日に,受講生のみを対象に7 月15 日に施行したものと同一のアンケート調査を行った.地域包括医療実習I 受講生は,非受講生に比較して,家族と同居しているもの,現在運動をしていないものが多かった.また,学習態度の自己評価点とSOC 処理可能感の得点が有意に高かった.地域包括医療実習I の実習前後の変化を検討したところ,生活態度の自己評価が終了時には有意に上昇していた.しかしSOC 把握可能感の得点が有意に低下していた.地域医療教育導入前後でほとんどの項目で大きな変化はなかったが,生活態度の行動変容に良い効果が得られた.また,把握可能感が低下していたため,面接などで適切な支援が必要である.The quotas of students who wish to be involved in communitymedicine have increased in medical schools in Japan.Accordingly, programs focused on community medicineare required in medical education. In this study weaimed to identify the characteristics of medical studentswho pursue community medicine. We also aimed to evaluatethe effects of the local community medical educationcourse for medical students by examining changes in thescores of self-evaluation of standards of conduct and in thescores of sense of coherence (SOC) before and after thecourse.Participants were 16 first-year students (9 men, 7 women;mean age, 18.9±1.0 years) at Dokkyo Medical Universitywho took the comprehensive community medicinepractice course( community medicine course students) and98 students (66 men, 32 women;mean age, 19.9±1.7years) who did not take the course( non-community medicinecourse students).Information on the study was provided on July 15, 2010,and written informed consent was obtained from all participants.A self-evaluation questionnaire comprising 26 itemsregarding standards of conduct, each to be rated on a seven-point scale, and a questionnaire comprising 29 items ofSOC and 12 items of lifestyle were used. Both questionnaireswere completed by all participants on July 15, 2010and by the community medicine course students on DecemberThe percentage of students who lived with their familiesand the percentage of students who did not regularly exerciseat the time of the questionnaire survey were higher inthe community medicine course students than in the noncommunitymedicine course students. In addition, the selfevaluationscore for attitude toward leaning and the SOCscore for sense of manageability were significantly higher inthe community medicine course students than in the noncommunitymedicine course students. In the communitymedicine course students, the self-evaluation score for attitudetoward life was significantly increased, while the SOCscore for sense of comprehensibility significantly decreasedby the end of the course.The comprehensive community medicine practice coursehad a positive effect on student attitude toward life, andpreferable behavioral modifications were observed, althoughscores for most items remained unchanged by the end ofthe course. Our findings revealed a decrease in sense ofcomprehensibility, indicating that appropriate student support,such as consultation, is necessary

    イガクセイ トシテ テキセツ ナ コウドウ ヤ タイド オ ジコ ヒョウカ スル トキニ エイキョウ スル セイカツ シュウカン カンレン インシ ノ ケントウ : ダイ1ガクネン カラ ダイ2ガクネン エノ ジコ ヒョウカ テン ノ ヘンカ オ チュウシン ニ

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    目的:プロフェッショナリズムの育成を医学教育に導入することを前提に医学生の低学年時の行動に対する自己評価の変化とそれに影響する因子を検討した.調査対象:2010 年の獨協医科大学医学部第1 学年の学生92 名(男子57 名,女子35 名)調査方法:2010 年7 月の1 年次と2011 年8 月に2 年次の2 回にわたって行動規範に関する自己評価表および国民健康・栄養調査に基づき作成した生活習慣調査アンケート調査を施行したその得点に影響する生活習慣関連因子を検討した.結果:1 年次から2 年次で自己評価が有意に向上したのは,「他者の人権や人格を尊重し,積極的かつ友好的にコミュニケーションをとり,分かりやすく説明する技術や態度の習得」「常に予習・復習を欠かさないなど学習習慣」「積極的に新しい知識や技能を吸収しようとする能動的な学習態度」であった.一方,2 年次で有意に自己評価が低下していたのは「講義や実習を欠席しない」「他人のものを盗用したり,データをねつ造したりしてレポートを作成しない」「与えられた課題や宿題等の提出期限を守っている」などであった.1 年次の低い自己評価に影響した項目は,男子,喫煙経験,朝食欠食,睡眠で休養がとれていないこと,睡眠補助剤の使用であった.さらに,1 年次の喫煙経験は2 年次の低い自己評価にも影響した.結論:不健康なライフスタイルが行動や態度の自己評価に影響することが判明したことより,生活習慣の変容は,行動の自己評価を向上させる可能性が示唆された.ObjectiveThe purpose of this study was to investigate factors associatedwith the professionalism of medical students, andspecifically their fitness to practice.SubjectsSubjects were 92 first-year students (57 men, 35 women)at Dokkyo Medical University School of Medicine.MethodsA 26-item self-report questionnaire on fitness to practiceand a 12-item self-report questionnaire on lifestyle werecompleted by the medical students at Dokkyo Medical University,once in their first year in July 2010 and again intheir second year in August 2011.ResultsFitness to practice scores were significantly higheramong second-year than first-year students regarding"friendly and positive communication with others while respectingtheir individual differences and human rights","learning earnestly through preparation and review beforeand after lectures", and "willingness to learn". Conversely,fitness to practice scores were significantly lower amongthe second-year than first-year students regarding "unexcusedabsence from lectures or clinical practice"," submissionof plagiarized or falsified reports", and" missed submissiondeadlines". The factors associated with lower selfassessmentscores among first-year students were beingmale, smoking experience, skipping breakfast, poor qualityof sleeping and sleeping pill usage. Furthermore, smokingexperience among first-year students was associated withlower self-assessment scores of fitness to practice in thesecond year.ConclusionThe results suggest that the early adoption of healthybehaviors had a positive influence on fostering educationalprofessionalism among medical student

    ドッキョウ イカ ダイガク ニ オケル チイキ ホウカツ イリョウ ジッシュウセイ ノ イシキ チョウサ ノ ケントウ ショウライ ノ チイキ イリョウ オ オコナ ウ ジカク ト フアン ニ カンレン スル インシ オ チュウシン ニ

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    目的:獨協医科大学では2010年度より地域枠入学制度が導入された.そこで2013年に,地域枠入学者の意識調査を施行し,「将来地域医療を行うという自覚」と「自分の将来についての不安」に着目してその調査結果を検討した.方法:対象は,地域枠入学者全員を含む地域包括医療実習生70名である.内訳は,第1学年20名,第2学年20名,第3学年18名,第4学年12名である.68名は学習支援システムを利用して記名式のWebアンケート調査に回答し,2名は自記式で同一調査に回答した.結果:「将来地域医療を行うことを大変自覚している・自覚している」ものは,第1学年85.0%,第2学年90.0%,第3学年77.8%,第4学年100%となった.また「将来地域医療を行うことを大変自覚している」ことは,「将来の自分のめざす医師像をもっている」ことと関与することが示唆された.自分の将来に不安があるものは,第1学年は60%,第2学年は55%,第3学年は50.0%,第4学年は50%であり,全体の半数以上が不安を持っていた.「不安がある」ものは有意に「地域包括医療実習以外にもっと地域医療について勉強の機会を与えてほしい」と考えていた.結論:地域医療教育はカリキュラムを越えてさらに発展する必要があることが示唆された.Objective:Four years have passed since Dokkyo Medical University first introduced an admission system for community medicine?oriented students. Therefore, a survey of community-mindedness among these students was held, and based on this survey, we examined the associated factors of willingness toward future engagement and present anxiety.Methods:Participants were 70 students(20 first-year students, 20 second-year students, 18 third-year students, and 12 fourth-year students)who took the comprehensive community medicine practice course. A total of 68 students answered the questionnaire using the learning medical system website and 2 students answered the questionnaire by hand.Results:Willingness to engage in community-oriented medicine was reported by 85.0% of first-years, 90.0% of second-years, 77.8% of third-years, and 100% of fourthyears, and willingness for future engagement was significantly associated with students\u27 possessing an ideal image of the doctor that they want to be. Present anxiety was reported by 60% of first-years, 55% of second-years, 50%of third-years, and 50% of fourth-years;over 50% of all students had some level of anxiety. Additionally, students who wanted to study more about community medicine beyond this practice course were significantly more likely to have present anxiety.Conclusion:Results suggested that education in community medicine was expected further developments

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome

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    The sequence of the human genome encodes the genetic instructions for human physiology, as well as rich information about human evolution. In 2001, the International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium reported a draft sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome. Since then, the international collaboration has worked to convert this draft into a genome sequence with high accuracy and nearly complete coverage. Here, we report the result of this finishing process. The current genome sequence (Build 35) contains 2.85 billion nucleotides interrupted by only 341 gaps. It covers ∼99% of the euchromatic genome and is accurate to an error rate of ∼1 event per 100,000 bases. Many of the remaining euchromatic gaps are associated with segmental duplications and will require focused work with new methods. The near-complete sequence, the first for a vertebrate, greatly improves the precision of biological analyses of the human genome including studies of gene number, birth and death. Notably, the human enome seems to encode only 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes. The genome sequence reported here should serve as a firm foundation for biomedical research in the decades ahead

    ブラックバス網膜の水平細胞に関する形態学的および電気生理学的研究(橋本葉子教授退任記念論文集)

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    The purpose of this study is to examine the correlation between the morphological characteristics and spectral responses of horizontal cells in black bass retina. Three layers of horizontal cell bodies and one layer of fine processes of horizontal cell axons were recognized in the horizontal cell layer. The most distally layered H1 cells were smaller than the H2 cells which form the second layer. Both H1 and H2 cells showed a monophasic spectral response with a maximum peak for red light. In the third layer, two kinds of horizontal cells, H3 and H4, were recognized. These horizontal cells were characterized by a similar morphology of their thinner and longer primary processes, but the staining of one type of horizontal cell was lighter than that of the other. Horizontal cells from the third layer showed biphasic spectral responses, which hyperpolarized to green light and depolarized to red light, although a question of which type of horizontal cells, H3 or H4, showed the biphasic spectral response was not clarified. Proximal to the third layer, a mesh-like profile of fine axon processes of horizontal cells was observed
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