4,331 research outputs found

    Voltage probe model of spin decay in a chaotic quantum dot, with applications to spin-flip noise and entanglement production

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    The voltage probe model is a model of incoherent scattering in quantum transport. Here we use this model to study the effect of spin-flip scattering on electrical conduction through a quantum dot with chaotic dynamics. The spin decay rate gamma is quantified by the correlation of spin-up and spin-down current fluctuations (spin-flip noise). The resulting decoherence reduces the ability of the quantum dot to produce spin-entangled electron-hole pairs. For gamma greater than a critical value gamma_c, the entanglement production rate vanishes identically. The statistical distribution P(gamma_c) of the critical decay rate in an ensemble of chaotic quantum dots is calculated using the methods of random-matrix theory. For small gamma_c this distribution is proportional to gamma_c^(-1+beta/2), depending on the presence (beta=1) or absence (beta=2) of time-reversal symmetry. To make contact with experimental observables, we derive a one-to-one relationship between the entanglement production rate and the spin-resolved shot noise, under the assumption that the density matrix is isotropic in the spin degrees of freedom. Unlike the Bell inequality, this relationship holds for both pure and mixed states. In the tunneling regime, the electron-hole pairs are entangled if and only if the correlator of parallel spin currents is at least twice larger than the correlator of antiparallel spin currents.Comment: version 3: corrected a factor of two in Eq. (3.16), affecting the final result

    Counting statistics of coherent population trapping in quantum dots

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    Destructive interference of single-electron tunneling between three quantum dots can trap an electron in a coherent superposition of charge on two of the dots. Coupling to external charges causes decoherence of this superposition, and in the presence of a large bias voltage each decoherence event transfers a certain number of electrons through the device. We calculate the counting statistics of the transferred charges, finding a crossover from sub-Poissonian to super-Poissonian statistics with increasing ratio of tunnel and decoherence rates.Comment: 4 pages, 2 figure

    Koszul Theorem for S-Lie coalgebras

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    For a symmetry braid S-Lie coalgebras, as a dual object to algebras introduced by Gurevich, are considered. For an Young antisymmetrizer an S-exterior algebra is introduced. From this differential point of view S-Lie coalgebras are investigated. The dual Koszul theorem in this case is proved.Comment: 8 pages, AMSLaTe

    Tidal controls on trace gas dynamics in a seagrass meadow of the Ria Formosa lagoon (southern Portugal)

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    Coastal zones are important source regions for a variety of trace gases, including halocarbons and sulfur-bearing species. While salt marshes, macroalgae and phyto-plankton communities have been intensively studied, little is known about trace gas fluxes in seagrass meadows. Here we report results of a newly developed dynamic flux chamber system that can be deployed in intertidal areas over full tidal cycles allowing for highly time-resolved measurements. The fluxes of CO2, methane (CH4) and a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) showed a complex dynamic mediated by tide and light. In contrast to most previous studies, our data indicate significantly enhanced fluxes during tidal immersion relative to periods of air exposure. Short emission peaks occurred with onset of the feeder current at the sampling site. We suggest an overall strong effect of advective transport processes to explain the elevated fluxes during tidal immersion. Many emission estimates from tidally influenced coastal areas still rely on measurements carried out during low tide only. Hence, our results may have significant implications for budgeting trace gases in coastal areas. This dynamic flux chamber system provides intensive time series data of community respiration (at night) and net community production (during the day) of shallow coastal systems.German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) [03F0611E, 03F0662E]; EU FP7 ASSEMBLE research infrastructure initiative

    Enzyme kinetics for a two-step enzymic reaction with comparable initial enzyme-substrate ratios

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    We extend the validity of the quasi-steady state assumption for a model double intermediate enzyme-substrate reaction to include the case where the ratio of initial enzyme to substrate concentration is not necessarily small. Simple analytical solutions are obtained when the reaction rates and the initial substrate concentration satisfy a certain condition. These analytical solutions compare favourably with numerical solutions of the full system of differential equations describing the reaction. Experimental methods are suggested which might permit the application of the quasi-steady state assumption to reactions where it may not have been obviously applicable before

    Michaelis-Menten dynamics in protein subnetworks

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    To understand the behaviour of complex systems it is often necessary to use models that describe the dynamics of subnetworks. It has previously been established using projection methods that such subnetwork dynamics generically involves memory of the past, and that the memory functions can be calculated explicitly for biochemical reaction networks made up of unary and binary reactions. However, many established network models involve also Michaelis-Menten kinetics, to describe e.g. enzymatic reactions. We show that the projection approach to subnetwork dynamics can be extended to such networks, thus significantly broadening its range of applicability. To derive the extension we construct a larger network that represents enzymes and enzyme complexes explicitly, obtain the projected equations, and finally take the limit of fast enzyme reactions that gives back Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The crucial point is that this limit can be taken in closed form. The outcome is a simple procedure that allows one to obtain a description of subnetwork dynamics, including memory functions, starting directly from any given network of unary, binary and Michaelis-Menten reactions. Numerical tests show that this closed form enzyme elimination gives a much more accurate description of the subnetwork dynamics than the simpler method that represents enzymes explicitly, and is also more efficient computationally
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