57 research outputs found

    Advances in the management of gout: Critical appraisal of febuxostat in the control of hyperuricemia

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    Gout recently passed rheumatoid arthritis to become the most common inflammatory arthritis in the United States (US). However, epidemiologic studies indicate that the quality of gout management is suboptimal owing to both patient and physician issues. Only three options for urate-lowering therapy are currently available in the US: allopurinol, probenecid, and recently, febuxostat. Probenecid is generally safe except for the occurrence of urolithiasis, but is only effective for the subset of patients with better kidney function. Allopurinol use is limited due to its side effects, potential toxicity of uncertain magnitude in patients with renal disease, and failure to achieve targeted serum urate levels. In part this failure may be due to the necessity for it to be titrated for optimal therapeutic effect. Febuxostat is a new medication that may offer several advantages and can be given as an alternative to allopurinol. We review the basic biology and clinical performance of febuxostat, and consider the potential utility of this agent in comparison to the older, better-established gout therapeutics

    "Women's rights, the European Court and Supranational Constitutionalism"

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    This analysis examines supranational constitutionalism in the European Union. In particular, the study focuses on the role of the European Court of Justice in the creation of women’s rights. I examine the interaction between the Court and member state governments in legal integration, and also the integral role that women’s advocates – both individual activists and groups – have played in the development of EU social provisions. The findings suggest that this litigation dynamic can have the effect of fueling the integration process by creating new rights that may empower social actors and EU organizations, with the ultimate effect of diminishing member state government control over the scope and direction of EU law. This study focuses specifically on gender equality law, yet provides a general framework for examining the case law in subsequent legal domains, with the purpose of providing a more nuanced understanding of supranational governance and constitutionalism

    A leaky umbrella has little value: evidence clearly indicates the serotonin system is implicated in depression.

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    A recent “umbrella” review examined various biomarkers relating to the serotonin system, and concluded there was no consistent evidence implicating serotonin in the pathophysiology of depression. We present reasons for why this conclusion is overstated, including methodological weaknesses in the review process, selective reporting of data, over-simplification, and errors in the interpretation of neuropsychopharmacological findings. We use the examples of tryptophan depletion and serotonergic molecular imaging, the two research areas most relevant to the investigation of serotonin, to illustrate this

    A leaky umbrella has little value:evidence clearly indicates the serotonin system is implicated in depression

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    A recent “umbrella” review examined various biomarkers relating to the serotonin system, and concluded there was no consistent evidence implicating serotonin in the pathophysiology of depression. We present reasons for why this conclusion is overstated, including methodological weaknesses in the review process, selective reporting of data, over-simplification, and errors in the interpretation of neuropsychopharmacological findings. We use the examples of tryptophan depletion and serotonergic molecular imaging, the two research areas most relevant to the investigation of serotonin, to illustrate this

    Recent advances in understanding and managing gout [version 1; referees: 2 approved]

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    Gout is the most common crystal arthropathy and the leading cause of inflammatory arthritis. It is associated with functional impairment and, for many, a diminished health-related quality of life. Numerous studies have demonstrated the impact of gout and its associated conditions on patient morbidity and mortality. Unfortunately, gout remains under-diagnosed and under-treated in the general community. Despite major advances in treatment strategies, as many as 90% of patients with gout are poorly controlled or improperly managed and their hyperuricemia and recurrent flares continue. The introduction of novel urate-lowering therapies, new imaging modalities, and a deeper understanding of the pathogenesis of gout raise the possibility of better gout care and improved patient outcomes. Here, we spotlight recent advances in the diagnosis and management of gout and discuss novel therapeutics in gout treatment
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