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    Development and manufacture of sustained release captopril beads

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    Hypertension has a high mortality rate in developing countries such as South Africa. Although the prevention and control of hypertension is a health priority, efforts to decrease the global burden of hypertension and improve control over the condition are inadequate. The use of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as captopril (CPT) have been effective for the management of hypertension when used as first line therapy alone or in combination. Commercially available immediate release dosage forms containing 12.5, 25 and 50 mg of CPT are administered two or three times a day to treat hypertension. CPT degrades in aqueous media with the sulfhydryl functional moiety responsible for adverse effects such as hypersensitivity, taste disturbances and/or presenting with a dry hacking cough. CPT has a short elimination half-life of between 1.6 and 1.9 hours, which means that the compound is a suitable candidate for inclusion in sustained release (SR) dosage forms. Manufacturing a SR dosage form of coated beads for twice daily dosing may reduce the incidence and intensity of undesirable adverse effects, improve the stability of CPT and improve patient adherence. A stability indicating reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed and optimised using a central composite design approach. As part of this approach the interactive effects of input factors, viz. pH, methanol (MeOH) content and column temperature on retention time, were investigated to achieve a separation with well-resolved and symmetrical peaks for CPT and salicylic acid. The method was validated using ICH guidelines and was found to be simple, linear, precise, accurate, selective and rapid for the in vitro quantitation of CPT. The method was successfully applied for the analysis of both commercially available and test formulations. Preformulation studies were undertaken to establish the physical and chemical properties of CPT, excipients and dosage forms to ensure the production of stabile and bioavailable products. Powder blends were assessed for flow properties using angle of repose (AOR), and bulk and tapped density, which were subsequently used to calculate Carrā€™s Index (CI) and the Hausner ratio (HR). The addition of talc resulted in the most powder blends with AOR, CI and HR that were within a range indicative of satisfactory to good flow properties. The use of talc was necessary to ensure that blending prior to wet granulation and extrusion-spheronisation would produce homogenous powders. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) were used for the identification and purity of CPT alone and 1:1 binary mixtures with excipients in an effort to establish if CPT was likely to undergo physical and/or chemical modification during production. The DSC thermograms for all CPT-excipient mixtures revealed the presence of a melting endotherm that was wider, occurring at 110.93 Ā°C (Tpeak for pure CPT). The characteristic peaks for specific functional groups were present in the FT-IR spectra for powder mixtures, indicating the absence of incompatibilities. Dialysis studies were used to investigate if the ammonium oleate present in SureleaseĀ® E-7-19010 interacted with CPT. The results suggests that an interaction between CPT and SureleaseĀ® E-7-19010 during processing of CPT beads was unlikely to occur. Preliminary investigations reveal that MethocelĀ® K100M, MethocelĀ® E4M, AvicelĀ® PH102, EudragitĀ® RS PO, SureleaseĀ® E-7-19010 and talc are compatible with CPT and could be used for the manufacture of SR CPT beads. CPT beads were manufactured using extrusion-spheronisation and coated using a fluidised bed drier fitted with a Wurster insert. The amount of granulating fluid, coating levels, curing time and formulation composition were varied to achieve CPT release with specific criteria to develop a preliminary formulation. The coated beads met all desired quality attributes in respect of micromeritic and flow properties, content uniformity and friability. Response Surface Methodology was used to further optimise the SR CPT formulation. The Plackett-Burman design was used for this process to produce an SR dosage form with desirable quality attributes achieved by altering formulation composition, extrusion-spheronisation variables and coating parameters. ANOVA data revealed significant responses for yield, aspect ratio, sphericity, coating efficiency and cumulative percent CPT released at 2 and 12 hours. Formulations in which the high molecular weight HPMC were used in increased concentrations resulted in the formation of a sticky wet mass and extrudate, resulting in a decrease in yield. The application of a permeable, but insoluble SureleaseĀ® coat onto the surface of the beads formed a barrier that complements the activity of the hydrophilic matrix in preventing rapid dissolution and retarding the release of CPT from the beads. The amount of CPT released over 12 hours revealed that increasing the MethocelĀ® K100M content entrapped CPT and retained it more efficiently in the hydrated matrix, resulting in a slow rate of CPT release. In vitro release data were fitted to a number of models in an attempt to elucidate mechanistic aspects of transport processes specific to CPT from the coated bead formulations. The results of fitting data from optimised batches revealed that the goodness of fit based on the adjusted correlation coefficient ranged between 0.953 and 0.976 for the Higuchi model, indicating that diffusion is a predominant factor that controls CPT release from the coated beads. The results of fitting data to the Korsmeyer-Peppas model suggest that the mechanism of CPT release includes transport of the dissolution medium from the vessel reservoir into the core of the bead due to osmotic potential, dissolution of CPT, mass transfer of the dissolved CPT within the core, partitioning between the solution and polymeric film, mass transfer of dissolved CPT through the film to ultimately reach the bulk dissolution fluid. A SR CPT bead formulation that has potential for further development and optimisation for scaled-up production using RSM approaches and Design of Experiments such as CCD or Box-Behnken has been successfully developed and manufactured using extrusion, spheronisation and coating processes. Assessment of all batches of beads manufactured exhibited satisfactory to good flow properties and demonstrated SR profiles over 12 hours that met USP criteria for SR dosage forms