289 research outputs found

    Das LEADER+ Programm als Motor einer endogenen Regionalentwicklung - OberallgÀu und Vorarlberg im Vergleich

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    Dieser Beitrag beschĂ€ftigt sich mit einer qualitativen Evaluation des LEADER+ Programms zur Entwicklung lĂ€ndlicher RĂ€ume in den Regionen OberallgĂ€u und Vorarlberg. Anhand der vom LEADER-Konzept geforderten Kriterien werden die Ergebnisse von ExpertengesprĂ€chen dargelegt, die merklichen Entwicklungsunterschiede zwischen den beiden benachbarten Regionen aufgezeigt, Entwicklungshemmnisse, Erfolgsfaktoren und Handlungsempfehlungen abgeleitet. Deutlich wird u. a., dass die lĂ€ngere Projektlaufzeit in Vorarlberg und der reichere Erfahrungsschatz zu den besser entwickelten Wertschöpfungsketten und der intensiveren regionalen Zusammenarbeit der Akteure beitragen. Insgesamt ist LEADER+ als sinnvolle projektbezogene ErgĂ€nzungsmaßnahme zur klassischen Direktförderung der Landwirtschaft anzusehen, da sektoren- und branchenĂŒbergreifende Projekte gefördert werden, die Eigeninitiative und regionale Kooperation der Betroffenen erfordern. Damit kann ein Beitrag zur Überwindung des kommunalen „Kirchturmdenkens“ geleistet werden. Regionale IdentitĂ€t und das Problembewusstsein der Bevölkerung werden geschĂ€rft und interregionale Kooperationen werden angestoßen.This paper presents a qualitative evaluation of the LEADER+ programme to support the development of rural space in the Upper AllgĂ€u and Vorarlberg regions. Applying the criteria demanded under the LEADER concept, the paper sets out the results of expert interviews, describes the clear differences in development between these two neighbouring regions, and on this basis identifies both impediments to development and success factors, and derives recommendations for action. One point which emerges is that the longer duration of the project in Vorarlberg, combined with the greater wealth of experience, together account for more highly developed value-added chains and to generally more intensive regional co-operation among the actors involved. Overall, LEADER+ can be regarded as a sensible project-based supplement to the classical instrument of direct subsidies to agriculture as it supports both cross-sectoral and crossbusiness projects which call for both personal initiative and regional identification on the part of those involved. It thus contributes to overcoming the parochial attitudes sometimes displayed by local authorities. At the same time it promotes both a sense of regional identity and problem awareness and provides an impetus for interregional cooperation

    Sodium and health : old myths and a controversy based on denial

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    Purpose of Review: The scientific consensus on which global health organizations base public health policies is that high sodium intake increases blood pressure (BP) in a linear fashion contributing to cardiovascular disease (CVD). A moderate reduction in sodium intake to 2000 mg per day helps ensure that BP remains at a healthy level to reduce the burden of CVD. Recent Findings: Yet, since as long ago as 1988, and more recently in eight articles published in the European Heart Journal in 2020 and 2021, some researchers have propagated a myth that reducing sodium does not consistently reduce CVD but rather that lower sodium might increase the risk of CVD. These claims are not well-founded and support some food and beverage industry’s vested interests in the use of excessive amounts of salt to preserve food, enhance taste, and increase thirst. Nevertheless, some researchers, often with funding from the food industry, continue to publish such claims without addressing the numerous objections. This article analyzes the eight articles as a case study, summarizes misleading claims, their objections, and it offers possible reasons for such claims. Summary: Our study calls upon journal editors to ensure that unfounded claims about sodium intake be rigorously challenged by independent reviewers before publication; to avoid editorial writers who have been co-authors with the subject paper’s authors; to require statements of conflict of interest; and to ensure that their pages are used only by those who seek to advance knowledge by engaging in the scientific method and its collegial pursuit. The public interest in the prevention and treatment of disease requires no less

    The CMS Phase-1 pixel detector upgrade

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    The CMS detector at the CERN LHC features a silicon pixel detector as its innermost subdetector. The original CMS pixel detector has been replaced with an upgraded pixel system (CMS Phase-1 pixel detector) in the extended year-end technical stop of the LHC in 2016/2017. The upgraded CMS pixel detector is designed to cope with the higher instantaneous luminosities that have been achieved by the LHC after the upgrades to the accelerator during the first long shutdown in 2013–2014. Compared to the original pixel detector, the upgraded detector has a better tracking performance and lower mass with four barrel layers and three endcap disks on each side to provide hit coverage up to an absolute value of pseudorapidity of 2.5. This paper describes the design and construction of the CMS Phase-1 pixel detector as well as its performance from commissioning to early operation in collision data-taking.Peer reviewe

    MUSiC : a model-unspecific search for new physics in proton-proton collisions at root s=13TeV

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    Results of the Model Unspecific Search in CMS (MUSiC), using proton-proton collision data recorded at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb(-1), are presented. The MUSiC analysis searches for anomalies that could be signatures of physics beyond the standard model. The analysis is based on the comparison of observed data with the standard model prediction, as determined from simulation, in several hundred final states and multiple kinematic distributions. Events containing at least one electron or muon are classified based on their final state topology, and an automated search algorithm surveys the observed data for deviations from the prediction. The sensitivity of the search is validated using multiple methods. No significant deviations from the predictions have been observed. For a wide range of final state topologies, agreement is found between the data and the standard model simulation. This analysis complements dedicated search analyses by significantly expanding the range of final states covered using a model independent approach with the largest data set to date to probe phase space regions beyond the reach of previous general searches.Peer reviewe

    Measurement of prompt open-charm production cross sections in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV