1,867 research outputs found

    The Global sphere reconstruction (GSR) - Demonstrating an independent implementation of the astrometric core solution for Gaia

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    Context. The Gaia ESA mission will estimate the astrometric and physical data of more than one billion objects, providing the largest and most precise catalog of absolute astrometry in the history of Astronomy. The core of this process, the so-called global sphere reconstruction, is represented by the reduction of a subset of these objects which will be used to define the celestial reference frame. As the Hipparcos mission showed, and as is inherent to all kinds of absolute measurements, possible errors in the data reduction can hardly be identified from the catalog, thus potentially introducing systematic errors in all derived work. Aims. Following up on the lessons learned from Hipparcos, our aim is thus to develop an independent sphere reconstruction method that contributes to guarantee the quality of the astrometric results without fully reproducing the main processing chain. Methods. Indeed, given the unfeasibility of a complete replica of the data reduction pipeline, an astrometric verification unit (AVU) was instituted by the Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC). One of its jobs is to implement and operate an independent global sphere reconstruction (GSR), parallel to the baseline one (AGIS, namely Astrometric Global Iterative Solution) but limited to the primary stars and for validation purposes, to compare the two results, and to report on any significant differences. Results. Tests performed on simulated data show that GSR is able to reproduce at the sub-őľ\muas level the results of the AGIS demonstration run presented in Lindegren et al. (2012). Conclusions. Further development is ongoing to improve on the treatment of real data and on the software modules that compare the AGIS and GSR solutions to identify possible discrepancies above the tolerance level set by the accuracy of the Gaia catalog.Comment: Accepted for publication on Astronomy & Astrophysic

    Results on Proton-Irradiated 3D Pixel Sensors Interconnected to RD53A Readout ASIC

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    Test beam results obtained with 3D pixel sensors bump-bonded to the RD53A prototype readout ASIC are reported. Sensors from FBK (Italy) and IMB-CNM (Spain) have been tested before and after proton-irradiation to an equivalent fluence of about 11 √ó\times 101610^{16} neq\text{n}_{\text{eq}} cm‚ąí2^{-2} (1 MeV equivalent neutrons). This is the first time that one single collecting electrode fine pitch 3D sensors are irradiated up to such fluence bump-bonded to a fine pitch ASIC. The preliminary analysis of the collected data shows no degradation on the hit detection efficiencies of the tested sensors after high energy proton irradiation, demonstrating the excellent radiation tolerance of the 3D pixel sensors. Thus, they will be excellent candidates for the extreme radiation environment at the innermost layers of the HL-LHC experiments.Comment: Conference Proceedings of VCI2019, 15th Vienna Conference of Instrumentation, February 18-22, 2019, Vienna, Austria. arXiv admin note: text overlap with arXiv:1903.0196

    Development of a new generation of 3D pixel sensors for HL-LHC

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    This paper covers the main technological and design aspects relevant to the development of a new generation of thin 3D pixel sensors with small pixel size aimed at the High-Luminosity LHC upgrades. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved

    Charge collection measurements with p-type Magnetic Czochralski silicon single pad detectors

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    Abstract The charge collected from beta source particles in single pad detectors produced on p-type Magnetic Czochralski (MCz) silicon wafers has been measured before and after irradiation with 26 MeV protons. After a 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluence of 1 √ó 10 15 cm - 2 the collected charge is reduced to 77% at bias voltages below 900 V. This result is compared with previous results from charge collection measurements

    Charge collection and capacitance‚Äďvoltage analysis in irradiated n-type magnetic Czochralski silicon detectors

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    Abstract The depletion depth of irradiated n-type silicon microstrip detectors can be inferred from both the reciprocal capacitance and from the amount of collected charge. Capacitance voltage ( C ‚Äď V ) measurements at different frequencies and temperatures are being compared with the bias voltage dependence of the charge collection on an irradiated n-type magnetic Czochralski silicon detector. Good agreement between the reciprocal capacitance and the median collected charge is found when the frequency of the C ‚Äď V measurement is selected such that it scales with the temperature dependence of the leakage current. Measuring C ‚Äď V characteristics at prescribed combinations of temperature and frequency allows then a realistic estimate of the depletion characteristics of irradiated silicon strip detectors based on C ‚Äď V data alone

    Ancient mitochondrial genomes from the Argentinian Pampas inform the early peopling of the Southern Cone of South America

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    The Southern Cone of South America (SCSA) is a key region for investigations about the peopling of the Americas. However, little is known about the eastern sector, the Argentinian Pampas. We analyzed 18 mitochondrial genomes?7 of which are novel?from human skeletal remains from 3 Early to Late Holocene archaeological sites. The Pampas present a distinctive genetic makeup compared to other Middle to Late Holocene pre-Columbian SCSA populations. We also report the earliest individuals carrying SCSA-specific mitochondrial haplogroups D1j and D1g fromEarly andMiddle Holocene, respectively. Using these deep calibration time points in Bayesian phylogenetic reconstructions, we suggest that the first settlers of the Pampas were part of a single and rapid dispersal 15,600 years ago. Finally, we propose that present-day genetic differences between the Pampas and the rest of the SCSA are due to founder effects, genetic drift, and a partial population replacement 9,000 years ago.Fil: Roca Rada, Xavier. Centre For Ancient Dna, University Of Adelaide; AustraliaFil: Politis, Gustavo Gabriel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Tandil. Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Paleontológicas del Cuaternario Pampeano. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Paleontológicas del Cuaternario Pampeano; ArgentinaFil: Messineo, Pablo Geronimo. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Tandil. Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Paleontológicas del Cuaternario Pampeano. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Paleontológicas del Cuaternario Pampeano; ArgentinaFil: Scheifler, Nahuel Alberto. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Tandil. Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Paleontológicas del Cuaternario Pampeano. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Paleontológicas del Cuaternario Pampeano; ArgentinaFil: Scabuzzo, Clara. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Entre Ríos. Universidad Nacional de Entre Ríos. Centro de Investigaciones y Transferencia de Entre Ríos; ArgentinaFil: Gonzalez, Mariela Edith. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Centro Científico Tecnológico Conicet - Tandil. Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Paleontológicas del Cuaternario Pampeano. Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires. Investigaciones Arqueológicas y Paleontológicas del Cuaternario Pampeano; ArgentinaFil: Harkins, Kelly M.. University of California; Estados UnidosFil: Reich, David. Harvard Medical School; Estados UnidosFil: Souilmi, Yassine. University of Adelaide; AustraliaFil: Teixeira, Joao C. T.. University of Adelaide; AustraliaFil: Llamas, Bastien. University of Adelaide; AustraliaFil: Fehren Schmitz, Lars. University of California; Estados Unido

    The INFN-FBK "Phase-2" R&D program

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    We report on the 3-year INFN ATLAS-CMS joint research activity in collaboration with FBK, started in 2014, and aimed at the development of new thin pixel detectors for the High Luminosity LHC Phase-2 upgrades. The program is concerned with both 3D and planar active-edge pixel sensors to be made on 6" p-type wafers. The technology and the design will be optimized and qualified for extreme radiation hardness (2×1016 neq cm-2). Pixel layouts compatible with present (for testing) and future (RD53 65nm) front-end chips of ATLAS and CMS are considered. The paper covers the main aspects of the research program, from the sensor design and fabrication technology, to the results of initial tests performed on the first prototypes. © 2015 Elsevier B.V

    Reconstructing the Deep Population History of Central and South America

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    We report genome-wide ancient DNA from 49 individuals forming four parallel time transects in Belize, Brazil, the Central Andes, and the Southern Cone, each dating to at least 9,000 years ago. The common ancestral population radiated rapidly from just one of the two early branches that contributed to Native Americans today. We document two previously unappreciated streams of gene flow between North and South America. One affected the Central Andes by 4,200 years ago, while the other explains an affinity between the oldest North American genome associated with the Clovis culture and the oldest Central and South Americans from Chile, Brazil, and Belize. However, this was not the primary source for later South Americans, as the other ancient individuals derive from lineages without specific affinity to the Clovis-associated genome, suggesting a population replacement that began at least 9,000 years ago and was followed by substantial population continuity in multiple regions

    Impacts of the Tropical Pacific/Indian Oceans on the Seasonal Cycle of the West African Monsoon

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    The current consensus is that drought has developed in the Sahel during the second half of the twentieth century as a result of remote effects of oceanic anomalies amplified by local land‚Äďatmosphere interactions. This paper focuses on the impacts of oceanic anomalies upon West African climate and specifically aims to identify those from SST anomalies in the Pacific/Indian Oceans during spring and summer seasons, when they were significant. Idealized sensitivity experiments are performed with four atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs). The prescribed SST patterns used in the AGCMs are based on the leading mode of covariability between SST anomalies over the Pacific/Indian Oceans and summer rainfall over West Africa. The results show that such oceanic anomalies in the Pacific/Indian Ocean lead to a northward shift of an anomalous dry belt from the Gulf of Guinea to the Sahel as the season advances. In the Sahel, the magnitude of rainfall anomalies is comparable to that obtained by other authors using SST anomalies confined to the proximity of the Atlantic Ocean. The mechanism connecting the Pacific/Indian SST anomalies with West African rainfall has a strong seasonal cycle. In spring (May and June), anomalous subsidence develops over both the Maritime Continent and the equatorial Atlantic in response to the enhanced equatorial heating. Precipitation increases over continental West Africa in association with stronger zonal convergence of moisture. In addition, precipitation decreases over the Gulf of Guinea. During the monsoon peak (July and August), the SST anomalies move westward over the equatorial Pacific and the two regions where subsidence occurred earlier in the seasons merge over West Africa. The monsoon weakens and rainfall decreases over the Sahel, especially in August.Peer reviewe

    Differential cross section measurements for the production of a W boson in association with jets in proton‚Äďproton collisions at ‚ąös = 7 TeV