38 research outputs found

    Identification of Hindbrain Neural Substrates for Motor Initiation in the hatchling Xenopus laevis Tadpole

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    Animal survival profoundly depends on the ability to detect stimuli in the environment, process them and respond accordingly. In this respect, motor responses to a sensory stimulation evolved into a variety of coordinated movements, which involve the control of brain centres over spinal locomotor circuits. The hatchling Xenopus tadpole, even in its embryonic stage, is able to detect external sensory information and to swim away if the stimulus is considered noxious. To do so, the tadpole relies on well-known ascending sensory pathway, which carries the sensory information to the brain. When the stimulus is strong enough, descending interneurons are activated, leading to the excitation of spinal CPG neurons, which causes the undulatory movement of swimming. However, the activation of descending interneurons that marks the initiation of motor response appears after a long delay from the sensory stimulation. Furthermore, the long-latency response is variable in time, as observed in the slow-summating excitation measured in descending interneurons. These two features, i.e. long-latency and variability, cannot be explained by the firing time and pattern of the ascending sensory pathway of the Xenopus tadpole. Therefore, a novel neuronal population has been proposed to lie in the hindbrain of the tadpole, and being able to 'hold' the sensory information, thus accounting for the long and variable delay of swim initiation. In this work, the role of the hindbrain in the maintenance of the long and variable response to trunk skin stimulation is investigated in the Xenopustadpole at developmental stage 37/38. A multifaceted approach has been used to unravel the neuronal mechanisms underlying the delayed motor response, including behavioural experiments, electrophysiology analysis of fictive swimming, hindbrain extracellular recordings and imaging experiments. Two novel neuronal populations have been identified in the tadpole's hindbrain, which exhibit activation patterns compatible with the role of delaying the excitation of the spinal locomotor circuit. Future work on cellular properties and synaptic connections of these newly discovered populations might shed light on the mechanism of descending control active at embryonic stage. Identifying supraspinal neuronal populations in an embryonic organism could aid in understanding mechanisms of descending motor control in more complex vertebrates

    Direct-acting antiviral agents for HCV-associated glomerular disease and the current evidence

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    Glomerular disease is an extra-hepatic manifestation of hepatitis C virus infection (HCV) and membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis is the most frequent glomerular disease associated with HCV. It occurs commonly in patients with HCV-related mixed cryoglobulinemia syndrome. Patients with HCV-related glomerular disease have been historically a difficult-to-treat group. The therapeutic armamentarium for HCV-related glomerular disease now includes antiviral regimens, selective or non-specific immunosuppressive drugs, immunomodulators, and symptomatic agents. The treatment of HCV-associated glomerular disease is dependent on the clinical presentation of the patient. The recent introduction of all-oral, interferon (IFN)-free/ribavirin (RBV)-free regimens is dramatically changing the course of HCV in the general population, and some regimens have been approved for HCV even in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. According to a systematic review of the medical literature, the evidence concerning the efficacy/safety of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) of HCV-induced glomerular disease is limited. The frequency of sustained virological response was 92.5% (62/67). Full or partial clinical remission was demonstrated in many patients (n = 46, 68.5%) after DAAs. There were no reports of deterioration of kidney function in patients on DAAs. Many patients (n = 29, 43%) underwent immunosuppression while on DAAs. A few cases of new onset or relapsing glomerular disease in patients with HCV successfully treated with DAAs have been observed. In summary, DAA-based combinations are making easier the management of HCV. However, patients with HCV-induced glomerular disease are still a difficult-to-treat group even at the time of DAAs.Fil: Fabrizi, Fabrizio. No especifíca;Fil: Cerutti, Roberta. No especifíca;Fil: Porata, Giulia. No especifíca;Fil: Messa, Piergiorgio. Università degli Studi di Milano; ItaliaFil: Ridruejo, Ezequiel. Universidad Austral. Hospital Universitario Austral; Argentina. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas. Oficina de Coordinación Administrativa Parque Centenario. CEMIC-CONICET. Centro de Educaciones Médicas e Investigaciones Clínicas "Norberto Quirno". CEMIC-CONICET; Argentin

    An early midbrain sensorimotor pathway is involved in the timely initiation and direction of swimming in the hatchling Xenopus laevis tadpole

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    Vertebrate locomotion is heavily dependent on descending control originating in the midbrain and subsequently influencing central pattern generators in the spinal cord. However, the midbrain neuronal circuitry and its connections with other brainstem and spinal motor circuits has not been fully elucidated. Vertebrates with very simple nervous system, like the hatchling Xenopus laevis tadpole, have been instrumental in unravelling fundamental principles of locomotion and its suspraspinal control. Here, we use behavioral and electrophysiological approaches in combination with lesions of the midbrain to investigate its contribution to the initiation and control of the tadpole swimming in response to trunk skin stimulation. None of the midbrain lesions studied here blocked the tadpole’s sustained swim behavior following trunk skin stimulation. However, we identified that distinct midbrain lesions led to significant changes in the latency and trajectory of swimming. These changes could partly be explained by the increase in synchronous muscle contractions on the opposite sides of the tadpole’s body and permanent deflection of the tail from its normal position, respectively. We conclude that the tadpole’s embryonic trunk skin sensorimotor pathway involves the midbrain, which harbors essential neuronal circuitry to significantly contribute to the appropriate, timely and coordinated selection and execution of locomotion, imperative to the animal’s survival

    Early midbrain sensorimotor pathway is involved in the timely initiation and direction of swimming in the hatchling Xenopus laevis tadpole

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    Vertebrate locomotion is heavily dependent on descending control originating in the midbrain and subsequently influencing central pattern generators in the spinal cord. However, the midbrain neuronal circuitry and its connections with other brainstem and spinal motor circuits has not been fully elucidated. Basal vertebrates with very simple nervous system, like the hatchling Xenopus laevis tadpole, have been instrumental in unravelling fundamental principles of locomotion and its suspraspinal control. Here, we use behavioral and electrophysiological approaches in combination with lesions of the midbrain to investigate its contribution to the initiation and control of the tadpole swimming in response to trunk skin stimulation. None of the midbrain lesions studied here blocked the tadpole’s sustained swim behavior following trunk skin stimulation. However, we identified that distinct midbrain lesions led to significant changes in the latency and trajectory of swimming. These changes could partly be explained by the increase in synchronous muscle contractions on the opposite sides of the tadpole’s body and permanent deflection of the tail from its normal position, respectively. Furthermore, the midbrain lesions led to significant changes in the tadpole’s ability to stop swimming when it bumps head on to solid objects. We conclude that the tadpole’s embryonic trunk skin sensorimotor pathway involves the midbrain, which harbors essential neuronal circuitry to significantly contribute to the appropriate, timely and coordinated selection and execution of locomotion, imperative to the animal’s survival

    Acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease after liver transplant: A retrospective observational study.

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    BACKGROUND AND RATIONALE Chronic kidney disease remains an important risk factor for morbidity and mortality among LT recipients, but its exact incidence and risk factors are still unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS We carried out a retrospective cohort study of consecutive adults who underwent liver transplant (January 2009-December 2018) and were followed (at least 6 months) at our institution. CKD was defined following the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) 2012 Clinical Practice Guidelines. Long-term kidney function was classified into 4 groups: no CKD (eGFR, ‚Č•60mL/min/1.73m2), mild CKD (eGFR, 30-59mL/min/1.73m2), severe CKD (eGFR, 15-29mL/min/1.73m2), and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). RESULTS We enrolled 410 patients followed for 53.2¬Ī32.6 months. 39 had CKD at baseline, and 95 developed de novo CKD over the observation period. There were 184 (44.9%) anti-HCV positive, 47 (11.5%) HBsAg positive, and 33 (8.1%) HBV/HDV positive recipients. Recipient risk factors for baseline CKD were advanced age (P=0.044), raised levels of serum uric acid (P<0.0001), and insulin dependent DM (P=0.0034). Early post-transplant AKI was common (n=95); logistic regression analysis found that baseline serum creatinine was an independent predictor of early post-LT AKI (P=0.0154). According to our Cox proportional hazards model, recipient risk factors for de novo CKD included aging (P<0.0001), early post-transplant AKI (P=0.007), and baseline serum creatinine (P=0.0002). At the end of follow-up, there were 116 LT recipients with CKD - 109 (93.9%) and 7 (6.1%) had stage 3 and advanced CKD, respectively. Only two of them are undergoing long-term dialysis. CONCLUSION The incidence of CKD was high in our cohort of LT recipients, but only a slight decline in kidney function over time was recorded. Prevention of post-transplant AKI will improve kidney function in the long run. We need more studies to analyze the function of kidneys among LT recipients over extended follow-ups and their impact on mortality

    Enhancing the axial resolution of an optoacoustic microscopy imaging instrument by using a pico-second pulse duration laser

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    In conventional optoacoustic microscopy, nanosecond pulse duration lasers are employed. When a laser delivering shorter pulse durations is used, it is expected that, from a theoretical point of view, broader, higher-frequency acoustic waves to be generated, therefore a better axial resolution of the instrument. In the present report, this advantage, offered by a picosecond duration pulse laser, to experimentally demonstrate that the axial resolution of an optoacoustic microscopy instrument can be enhanced was exploited. In comparison to a 2 ns pulse duration, an improvement in the axial resolution of ~50% is demonstrated by using excitations with pulses of duration <100 ps. Details of an optoacoustic microscopy instrument, operating at 532 nm, capable to provide high-resolution axial and lateral optoacoustic images, are also presented. The capabilities of the instrument are demonstrated by in-vivo images of Xenopus laevis brain with a similar ~3.8 ¬Ķm lateral resolution throughout the whole axial imaging range

    Enhanced resolution optoacoustic microscopy using a picosecond high repetition rate Q-switched microchip laser

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    Conventional optoacoustic microscopy (OAM) instruments have at their core a nanosecond pulse duration laser. If lasers with a shorter pulse duration are used, broader, higher frequency ultrasound waves are expected to be generated and as a result, the axial resolution of the instrument is improved. Here, we exploit the advantage offered by a picosecond duration pulse laser to enhance the axial resolution of an OAM instrument. In comparison to an instrument equipped with a 2-ns pulse duration laser, an improvement in the axial resolution of 50% is experimentally demonstrated by using excitation pulses of only 85 ps. To illustrate the capability of the instrument to generate high-quality optoacoustic images, en-face, in-vivo images of the brain of Xenopus laevis tadpole are presented with a lateral resolution of 3.8 őľm throughout the entire axial imaging range

    Enhanced resolution optoacoustic microscopy using a picosecond high repetition rate Q-switched microchip laser

    Get PDF
    Conventional optoacoustic microscopy (OAM) instruments have at their core a nanosecond pulse duration laser. If lasers with a shorter pulse duration are used, broader, higher frequency ultrasound waves are expected to be generated and as a result, the axial resolution of the instrument is improved. Here, we exploit the advantage offered by a picosecond duration pulse laser to enhance the axial resolution of an OAM instrument. In comparison to an instrument equipped with a 2-ns pulse duration laser, an improvement in the axial resolution of 50% is experimentally demonstrated by using excitation pulses of only 85¬†ps. To illustrate the capability of the instrument to generate high-quality optoacoustic images, en-face, in-vivo images of the brain of Xenopus laevis tadpole are presented with a lateral resolution of 3.8 őľm throughout the entire axial imaging range.publishedVersionPeer reviewe

    Two octaves spanning photoacoustic microscopy

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    In this study, for the first time, a Photoacoustic Microscopy instrument driven by a single optical source operating over a wide spectral range (475‚Äď2400 nm), covering slightly more than two octaves is demonstrated. Xenopus laevis tadpoles were imaged in vivo using the whole spectral range of 2000 nm of a supercontinuum optical source, and a novel technique of mapping absorbers is also demonstrated, based on the supposition that only one chromophore contributes to the photoacoustic signal of each individual voxel in the 3D photoacoustic image. By using a narrow spectral window (of 25 nm bandwidth) within the broad spectrum of the supercontinuum source at a time, in vivo hyper-spectral Photoacoustic images of tadpoles are obtained. By post-processing pairs of images obtained using different spectral windows, maps of five endogenous contrast agents (hemoglobin, melanin, collagen, glucose and lipids) are produced

    Hyperoxemia and excess oxygen use in early acute respiratory distress syndrome : Insights from the LUNG SAFE study

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    Publisher Copyright: ¬© 2020 The Author(s). Copyright: Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.Background: Concerns exist regarding the prevalence and impact of unnecessary oxygen use in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We examined this issue in patients with ARDS enrolled in the Large observational study to UNderstand the Global impact of Severe Acute respiratory FailurE (LUNG SAFE) study. Methods: In this secondary analysis of the LUNG SAFE study, we wished to determine the prevalence and the outcomes associated with hyperoxemia on day 1, sustained hyperoxemia, and excessive oxygen use in patients with early ARDS. Patients who fulfilled criteria of ARDS on day 1 and day 2 of acute hypoxemic respiratory failure were categorized based on the presence of hyperoxemia (PaO2 > 100 mmHg) on day 1, sustained (i.e., present on day 1 and day 2) hyperoxemia, or excessive oxygen use (FIO2 ‚Č• 0.60 during hyperoxemia). Results: Of 2005 patients that met the inclusion criteria, 131 (6.5%) were hypoxemic (PaO2 < 55 mmHg), 607 (30%) had hyperoxemia on day 1, and 250 (12%) had sustained hyperoxemia. Excess FIO2 use occurred in 400 (66%) out of 607 patients with hyperoxemia. Excess FIO2 use decreased from day 1 to day 2 of ARDS, with most hyperoxemic patients on day 2 receiving relatively low FIO2. Multivariate analyses found no independent relationship between day 1 hyperoxemia, sustained hyperoxemia, or excess FIO2 use and adverse clinical outcomes. Mortality was 42% in patients with excess FIO2 use, compared to 39% in a propensity-matched sample of normoxemic (PaO2 55-100 mmHg) patients (P = 0.47). Conclusions: Hyperoxemia and excess oxygen use are both prevalent in early ARDS but are most often non-sustained. No relationship was found between hyperoxemia or excessive oxygen use and patient outcome in this cohort. Trial registration: LUNG-SAFE is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02010073publishersversionPeer reviewe
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