6,031 research outputs found

    Readiness of the CMS Detector for First Data

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    The Compact Muon Solenoid Detector (CMS) completed the first phase of commissioning in September 2008. The detector, data acquisition and distribution, reconstruction and analysis chains were successfully commissioned in a first phase with cosmic ray triggers. On September 10, 2008 CMS captured the first events from the LHC beam. In the following few days, the experiment accumulated many beam-splash and beam halo events from circulating beams. After the LHC setback on September 19th, CMS went back to cosmics operation. Continuous running with full magnetic field and the tracker detectors in full swing allowed the collection of large samples of muon tracks to be used for alignment and calibration, and improved the overall stability and efficiency of data taking. We present results of the analysis of data from the three phases, which have enabled establishing good starting points for time and space alignment, and accuracy of detector measurements. The status of the detector, and prospects for the collider run in 2009-2010 are subsequently discussed

    A new dataset on educational inequality

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    The impact of working conditions on mental health: Novel evidence from the UK

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    This paper investigates the causal impact of working conditions on mental health in the UK, combining new longitudinal data on working conditions from the European Working Conditions Survey with microdata from the UK Household Longitudinal Survey (Understanding Society). Our empirical strategy accounts for the endogenous sorting of individuals into occupations by including individual fixed effects. We address the potential endogeneity of occupational change over time by focusing only on individuals who remain in the same occupation (ISCO 3-digit), exploiting the variation in working conditions within each occupation over time. This variation, determined primarily by general macroeconomic conditions, is likely to be exogenous from the individual point of view. Our results indicate that, for female workers, improvements in working conditions such as skills and discretion, working time quality, and work intensity improve mental health outcomes such as loss of confidence, anxiety, social dysfunction, and risk of clinical depression. These effects are clinically relevant and substantial for younger and older female workers and larger for workers in occupations characterised by an inherently higher level of job strain. We detail how different dimensions of job quality impact different mental health outcomes for different age groups. Our results have important implications for public policies and firms which aim to improve workers’ wellbeing and productivity through workplace interventions focused on mental health

    The role of local labour market conditions and pupil attainment on post-compulsory schooling decisions

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    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to assess the role of local labour market conditions and pupil educational attainment as primary determinants of the post-compulsory schooling decision. Design/methodology/approach Through the specification of a nested logit model, the restrictive independence of irrelevant alternatives (IIA) assumption inherent in the multinomial logit (MNL) model is relaxed across multiple unordered outcomes. Findings The analysis shows that the factors influencing schooling decisions differ for males and females. For females, on average, the key drivers of the schooling decision are expected wage returns based on youth educational attainment, attitudes to school and parental aspirations, rather than local labour market conditions. For males, higher local unemployment rates encourage greater investment in education. Originality/value The contribution of this paper to the existing literature is threefold. First, a nested logit model is proposed as an alternative to a MNL. The former can formally incorporate the structured and sequential decision-making process that youths may engage with in relation to the post-compulsory schooling decision, as well as relaxing the restrictive IIA assumption inherent in the MNL across multiple unordered outcomes, an issue the authors discuss in more detail in the Methodology section below. Second, the analysis is based on extremely rich socio-economic data from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England, matched to local labour market data and administrative data from the National Pupil Database and Pupil Level Annual School Census, which provide a broad set of unusually high-quality measures of prior attainment. The authors argue that such high-quality data and an appropriate model specification allows identification of the determinants of the post-compulsory decision in a more detailed manner than many previous analyses. Third, the data have the scale necessary to consider whether the determinants of post-compulsory schooling decisions vary by gender, a particularly important issue given the differential education participation rates of males and females (e.g. in this cohort, females are about 10 percentage points more likely to go on to higher education in the UK than males), and the gendered choices of occupation (see, e.g. Bertrand, 2011). The work will, therefore, provide recent empirical evidence from England on gender differences in the determinants of education choices. Office for Manpower Economic

    Detection of SARS-CoV-2 on hospital surfaces

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    The COVID-19 pandemic, affecting 213 countries, with more than 10 million cases and over 500,000 deaths is still causing serious health, social and economic emergency worldwide. Italian Northern regions are among the most badly affected areas. Surfaces represent matrices to which particular attention should be paid for prevention and control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. A few studies have highlighted virus presence on surfaces. We report the evidence of its presence on hospital surfaces, in a single room hosting a patient whose nose-pharyngeal swab resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA at the admission. The surfaces sampling was carried out using pre-wetted swabs followed by extraction and amplification of viral RNA by reverse Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (rRT-PCR). A total of 4/15 (26.66%) surfaces were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA: the right bed rail, the call button, the bed trapeze bar, the stethoscope; moreover, the patient’s inner surgical mask was positive, showing the emission of the virus from the patient. This study is a further confirmation that the surfaces represent a potential vehicle of transmission. This supports the need for strict adherence to hand and environmental hygiene. (www.actabiomedica.it)

    Study of the electron trigger efficiency of the CMS Experiment using test beam data

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    A study of the electron identification and selection efficiency of the L1 Trigger algorithm has been performed using the combined ECAL/HCAL test beam data. A detailed discussion of the electron isolation and its impact on the selection efficiency is presented. The L1 electron algorithm is studied for different beam energies and the results indicate that efficiencies of 98% or more can be achieved for electrons with energies between 15 and 100 GeV. The fraction of charged hadrons with energies from 3 up to 100 GeV rejected by the L1 electron trigger algorithm is estimated to be larger than 93%.Comment: 22 pages, 14 figure

    Is lung ultrasound score a useful tool to monitoring and handling moderate and severe COVID-19 patients in the general ward? An observational pilot study

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    Lung ultrasound is a well-established diagnostic tool in acute respiratory failure, and it has been shown to be particularly suited for the management of COVID-19-associated respiratory failure. We present exploratory analyses on the diagnostic and prognostic performance of lung ultrasound score (LUS) in general ward patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia receiving O2 supplementation and/or noninvasive ventilation. From March 10 through May 1, 2020, 103 lung ultrasound exams were performed by our Forward Intensive Care Team (FICT) on 26 patients (18 males and 8 females), aged 62 (54 – 76) and with a Body Mass Index (BMI) of 30.9 (28.7 – 31.5), a median 6 (5 – 9) days after admission to the COVID-19 medical unit of the University Hospital of Parma, Italy. All patients underwent chest computed tomography (CT) the day of admission. The initial LUS was 16 (11 – 21), which did not significantly correlate with initial CT scans, probably due to rapid progression of the disease and time between CT scan on admission and first FICT evaluation; conversely, LUS was significantly correlated with PaO2/FiO2 ratio throughout patient follow-up [R = − 4.82 (− 6.84 to − 2.80; p < 0.001)]. The area under the receiving operating characteristics curve of LUS for the diagnosis of moderate-severe disease (PaO2/FiO2 ratio ≤ 200 mmHg) was 0.73, with an optimal cutoff value of 11 (positive predictive value: 0.98; negative predictive value: 0.29). Patients who eventually needed invasive ventilation and/or died during admission had significantly higher LUS throughout their stay

    Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

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    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008
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