15 research outputs found

    Performance analysis of anaplasma antibody competitive ELISA using the ROC curve for screening of anaplasmosis in camel populations in Egypt

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    Anaplasmosis is a tick-born and potential zoonotic disease caused by Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, A. ovis, A. platys and A. capra. Anaplasma marginale affecting bovines and camels causing significant economic losses. Camels as an integral part of the socio-economic lifestyle of nomads in semi-arid to arid ecosystems are prone to suffer from subclinical Anaplasma infections. This study aimed to determine the performance and adaptation of commercial competitive Anaplasma ELISA (cELISA) as a tool for screening the seroprevalence of anaplasmosis whitin the camel populations in Egypt. This study was based on the serological investigation of 437 camel sera collected between 2015 and 2016 during a Q fever prevalence study in Egypt using commercially available cELISA for the detection of antibodies specific for Anaplasma in bovine serum. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, an analysis method for optimizing cutoff values in cELISAs, was used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity using 76 true as serological positive (n = 7) and negative (n = 60) for Anaplasma antibodies. ROC curve analysis was done for 7 true positive and 60 true negative bovine samples and 7 true positive and 29 true negative camel samples serum. Real time PCR and/or conventional PCR was applied to confirm Anaplasma spp. specific-DNA in camel serum as an indication of a true positive and true negative for ROC analysis. Chi square analysis was performed to estimate the association between risk factors and anaplasmosis in camels. The cutoff value was determined as 0.42 (p value ‚ȧ 0.001). Data simulation with randomly generated values revealed a cutoff value of 0.417 (p ‚ȧ 0.001) with resulting 58.1% Se and 97.8% Sp. Seven true positive and 29 true negative camel serum samples was confirmed by PCR. Using the estimated cut off, the seroprevalence in the Nile Valley and Delta and the Eastern Desert domain was 47.4% and 46.4%, respectively. The potential risk factors as domains and origin of animals were less significantly associated with the prevalence of anaplasmosis (domains: Ōá(2) = 41.8, p value ‚ȧ 0.001 and origin: Ōá(2) = 42.56, p value ‚ȧ 0.001). Raising awareness especially for veterinarians and animal owners will significantly contribute to the best understanding of anaplasmosis in camels in Egypt. Alternative (in silico) validation techniques and preliminary prevalence studies are mandatory towards the control of neglected anaplasmosis in the camel population

    Seroprevalence and Molecular Detection of Bovine Anaplasmosis in Egypt

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    Bovine anaplasmosis is a tick-borne disease with zoonotic potential, caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Anaplasma marginale. The disease is distributed worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions. The economic losses from anaplasmosis in animals is of significant importance because it causes severe morbidity and mortality in cattle. Recovered animals may become persistent carriers. Epidemiological information on the actual status of bovine anaplasmosis in Egypt is scarce. Thus, this study aimed to determine anti-Anaplasma antibody and DNA in serum samples using ELISA and PCR, respectively. In total, 758 bovine sera were collected from cattle farms located in 24 Egyptian governorates in 2015 to 2016. Sera were analyzed with the commercially available ‚ÄėAnaplasma antibody competitive ELISA v2‚Äô kit and ‚ÄėAmpliTest Anaplasma/Ehrlichia spp. real time TaqMan TM PCR. Anaplasma spp. antibodies were detected in 140 (18.5%) (CI: 15.8‚Äď21.4%) of the investigated sera by ELISA, and Anaplasma/Ehrlichia-DNA was detected in 40 (5.3%) (CI: 3.8‚Äď7.1%) of the positive sera by real time PCR. Co-detection of both Anaplasma spp. and Coxiella burnetii-specific antibodies was proven in 30 (4%) of the investigated sera. The results of this work confirm the significant prevalence of bovine anaplasmosis in Egypt. Raising awareness in decision makers of the public health, veterinarians and animal owners is required to reduce the spread of infection

    The Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Hard Ticks in Europe and Their Role in Q Fever Transmission Revisited‚ÄĒA Systematic Review

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    The zoonosis Q fever is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Besides the main transmission route via inhalation of contaminated aerosols, ticks are discussed as vectors since the first isolation of the pathogen from a Dermacentor andersonii tick. The rare detection of C. burnetii in ticks and the difficult differentiation of C. burnetii from Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLEs) are questioning the relevance of ticks in the epidemiology of Q fever. In this review, literature databases were systematically searched for recent prevalence studies concerning C. burnetii in ticks in Europe and experimental studies evaluating the vector competence of tick species. A total of 72 prevalence studies were included and evaluated regarding DNA detection methods and collectionmethods, country, and tested tick species. Specimens ofmore than 25 different tick species were collected in 23 European countries. Overall, an average prevalence of 4.8% was determined. However, in half of the studies, no Coxiella-DNA was detected. In Southern European countries, a significantly higher prevalence was observed, possibly related to the abundance of different tick species here, namely Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. In comparison, a similar proportion of studies used ticks sampled by flagging and dragging or tick collection from animals, under 30% of the total tick samples derived from the latter. There was no significant difference in the various target genes used for the molecular test. In most of the studies, no distinction was made between C. burnetii and CLEs. The application of specific detection methods and the confirmation of positive results are crucial to determine the role of ticks in Q fever transmission. Only two studies were available, which assessed the vector competence of ticks for C. burnetii in the last 20 years, demonstrating the need for further research

    Uptake and fecal excretion of Coxiella burnetii by Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus ticks

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    Background: The bacterium Coxiella burnetii is the etiological agent of Q fever and is mainly transmitted via inhalation of infectious aerosols. DNA of C. burnetii is frequently detected in ticks, but the role of ticks as vectors in the epidemiology of this agent is still controversial. In this study, Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus adults as well as I. ricinus nymphs were fed on blood spiked with C. burnetii in order to study the fate of the bacterium within putative tick vectors. Methods: Blood-feeding experiments were performed in vitro in silicone-membrane based feeding units. The uptake, fecal excretion and transstadial transmission of C. burnetii was examined by quantitative real-time PCR as well as cultivation of feces and crushed tick filtrates in L-929 mouse fibroblast cells and cell-free culture medium. Results: Ticks successfully fed in the feeding system with engorgement rates ranging from 29% (D. marginatus) to 64% (I. ricinus adults). Coxiella burnetii DNA was detected in the feces of both tick species during and after feeding on blood containing 105 or 106 genomic equivalents per ml blood (GE/ml), but not when fed on blood containing only 104 GE/ml. Isolation and cultivation demonstrated the infectivity of C. burnetii in shed feces. In 25% of the I. ricinus nymphs feeding on inoculated blood, a transstadial transmission to the adult stage was detected. Females that molted from nymphs fed on inoculated blood excreted C. burnetii of up to 106 genomic equivalents per mg of feces. Conclusions: These findings show that transstadial transmission of C. burnetii occurs in I. ricinus and confirm that I. ricinus is a potential vector for Q fever. Transmission from both tick species might occur by inhalation of feces containing high amounts of viable C. burnetii rather than via tick bites

    Macrophages inhibit Coxiella burnetii by the ACOD1 ‚Äźitaconate pathway for containment of Q fever

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    Infection with the intracellular bacterium Coxiella (C.) burnetii can cause chronic Q fever with severe complications and limited treatment options. Here, we identify the enzyme cis-aconitate decarboxylase 1 (ACOD1 or IRG1) and its product itaconate as protective host immune pathway in Q fever. Infection of mice with C. burnetii induced expression of several anti-microbial candidate genes, including Acod1. In macrophages, Acod1 was essential for restricting C. burnetii replication, while other antimicrobial pathways were dispensable. Intratracheal or intraperitoneal infection of Acod1-/- mice caused increased C. burnetii burden, weight loss and stronger inflammatory gene expression. Exogenously added itaconate restored pathogen control in Acod1-/- mouse macrophages and blocked replication in human macrophages. In axenic cultures, itaconate directly inhibited growth of C. burnetii. Finally, treatment of infected Acod1-/- mice with itaconate efficiently reduced the tissue pathogen load. Thus, ACOD1-derived itaconate is a key factor in the macrophage-mediated defense against C. burnetii and may be exploited for novel therapeutic approaches in chronic Q fever

    The Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Hard Ticks in Europe and Their Role in Q Fever Transmission Revisited‚ÄĒA Systematic Review

    No full text
    The zoonosis Q fever is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Besides the main transmission route via inhalation of contaminated aerosols, ticks are discussed as vectors since the first isolation of the pathogen from a Dermacentor andersonii tick. The rare detection of C. burnetii in ticks and the difficult differentiation of C. burnetii from Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLEs) are questioning the relevance of ticks in the epidemiology of Q fever. In this review, literature databases were systematically searched for recent prevalence studies concerning C. burnetii in ticks in Europe and experimental studies evaluating the vector competence of tick species. A total of 72 prevalence studies were included and evaluated regarding DNA detection methods and collectionmethods, country, and tested tick species. Specimens ofmore than 25 different tick species were collected in 23 European countries. Overall, an average prevalence of 4.8% was determined. However, in half of the studies, no Coxiella-DNA was detected. In Southern European countries, a significantly higher prevalence was observed, possibly related to the abundance of different tick species here, namely Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. In comparison, a similar proportion of studies used ticks sampled by flagging and dragging or tick collection from animals, under 30% of the total tick samples derived from the latter. There was no significant difference in the various target genes used for the molecular test. In most of the studies, no distinction was made between C. burnetii and CLEs. The application of specific detection methods and the confirmation of positive results are crucial to determine the role of ticks in Q fever transmission. Only two studies were available, which assessed the vector competence of ticks for C. burnetii in the last 20 years, demonstrating the need for further research

    Performance Analysis of Anaplasma Antibody Competitive ELISA Using the ROC Curve for Screening of Anaplasmosis in Camel Populations in Egypt

    No full text
    Anaplasmosis is a tick-born and potential zoonotic disease caused by Anaplasma (A.) phagocytophilum, A. ovis, A. platys and A. capra. Anaplasma marginale affecting bovines and camels causing significant economic losses. Camels as an integral part of the socio-economic lifestyle of nomads in semi-arid to arid ecosystems are prone to suffer from subclinical Anaplasma infections. This study aimed to determine the performance and adaptation of commercial competitive Anaplasma ELISA (cELISA) as a tool for screening the seroprevalence of anaplasmosis whitin the camel populations in Egypt. This study was based on the serological investigation of 437 camel sera collected between 2015 and 2016 during a Q fever prevalence study in Egypt using commercially available cELISA for the detection of antibodies specific for Anaplasma in bovine serum. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, an analysis method for optimizing cutoff values in cELISAs, was used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity using 76 true as serological positive (n = 7) and negative (n = 60) for Anaplasma antibodies. ROC curve analysis was done for 7 true positive and 60 true negative bovine samples and 7 true positive and 29 true negative camel samples serum. Real time PCR and/or conventional PCR was applied to confirm Anaplasma spp. specific-DNA in camel serum as an indication of a true positive and true negative for ROC analysis. Chi square analysis was performed to estimate the association between risk factors and anaplasmosis in camels. The cutoff value was determined as 0.42 (p value ≤ 0.001). Data simulation with randomly generated values revealed a cutoff value of 0.417 (p ≤ 0.001) with resulting 58.1% Se and 97.8% Sp. Seven true positive and 29 true negative camel serum samples was confirmed by PCR. Using the estimated cut off, the seroprevalence in the Nile Valley and Delta and the Eastern Desert domain was 47.4% and 46.4%, respectively. The potential risk factors as domains and origin of animals were less significantly associated with the prevalence of anaplasmosis (domains: χ(2) = 41.8, p value ≤ 0.001 and origin: χ(2) = 42.56, p value ≤ 0.001). Raising awareness especially for veterinarians and animal owners will significantly contribute to the best understanding of anaplasmosis in camels in Egypt. Alternative (in silico) validation techniques and preliminary prevalence studies are mandatory towards the control of neglected anaplasmosis in the camel population

    The Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii in Hard Ticks in Europe and Their Role in Q Fever Transmission Revisited‚ÄĒA Systematic Review

    No full text
    The zoonosis Q fever is caused by the obligate intracellular bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Besides the main transmission route via inhalation of contaminated aerosols, ticks are discussed as vectors since the first isolation of the pathogen from a Dermacentor andersonii tick. The rare detection of C. burnetii in ticks and the difficult differentiation of C. burnetii from Coxiella-like endosymbionts (CLEs) are questioning the relevance of ticks in the epidemiology of Q fever. In this review, literature databases were systematically searched for recent prevalence studies concerning C. burnetii in ticks in Europe and experimental studies evaluating the vector competence of tick species. A total of 72 prevalence studies were included and evaluated regarding DNA detection methods and collectionmethods, country, and tested tick species. Specimens ofmore than 25 different tick species were collected in 23 European countries. Overall, an average prevalence of 4.8% was determined. However, in half of the studies, no Coxiella-DNA was detected. In Southern European countries, a significantly higher prevalence was observed, possibly related to the abundance of different tick species here, namely Hyalomma spp. and Rhipicephalus spp. In comparison, a similar proportion of studies used ticks sampled by flagging and dragging or tick collection from animals, under 30% of the total tick samples derived from the latter. There was no significant difference in the various target genes used for the molecular test. In most of the studies, no distinction was made between C. burnetii and CLEs. The application of specific detection methods and the confirmation of positive results are crucial to determine the role of ticks in Q fever transmission. Only two studies were available, which assessed the vector competence of ticks for C. burnetii in the last 20 years, demonstrating the need for further research

    Serological Prevalence of and Risk Factors for Coxiella burnetti Infection in Women of Punjab Province, Pakistan

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    Background: Coxiella burnetii, the etiological agent of Q (query) fever, provokes abortions in ruminants and is suspected to cause adverse pregnancy outcomes in women. Infection of pregnant women is linked with high mortality and morbidity of the fetus and the mother is at high risk to acquire chronic Q fever. This research was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Q fever in women and to detect associated risk factors in four districts of Punjab Province, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 297 blood samples were obtained from 147 pregnant and 150 non-pregnant women of the districts Okara, Jhang, Chiniot and Faisalabad of Punjab, Pakistan. Data related to risk factors and demographic parameters were collected using a questionnaire. Serum samples were screened for phase I and phase II specific IgG antibodies for antigens of phase I and phase II using ELISA tests. Univariate and binary regression were used to analyze important risk factors of Q fever. Results: Twenty-five serum samples (8.4%) were found seropositive for Q fever. Seventeen women were positive for Phase-I and twenty-one were positive for phase-II antibodies. Highest and statistically significant (p < 0.05) seroprevalence of 17.1% was observed in Faisalabad. Age, urbanicity, living status, pregnancy status, abortion history, occupation, and consumption of tap water were positively correlated (p < 0.05) with Q fever, while being aged, urbanity, low income, contact with animals and consumption of tap water was identified as potential risk factors. Conclusions: Q fever is prevalent in women of Pakistan. There is a need for an awareness program about the importance of C. burnetii infections and prevention strategies in women during pregnancy to minimize adverse pregnancy outcomes

    Sero-Epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii Infection in Small Ruminants in the Eastern Region of Punjab, Pakistan

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    The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Q fever in sheep and goats in Kasur, Okara, and Pakpattan in the Punjab of Pakistan. Q fever is a widely reported zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella (C.) burnetii. The main reservoirs are small ruminants that excrete the bacteria in birth by-products in high numbers. Thus, the bacteria can also be detected in the air and the dust of livestock farms. The infection is often asymptomatic in ruminants, but it can lead to reproductive disorders. This cross-sectional study found that a significant number (n = 43; 11.3%) of 300 randomly selected small ruminants of nine tehsils were seropositive using a commercially available ELISA. Seroprevalence was significantly higher in goats (17.1%) than in sheep (4.9%). Binary logistic regression analysis proved that species, age, and breed have a significant effect on the prevalence of Q fever. Tick infestation, contact with animal fomites, contact with other animals, production system, and health status of an animal had a significant impact on the prevalence of Q fever. These findings on Q fever in animals can be used to improve the visibility of this zoonotic disease. These findings will help local health authorities to focus on the origin of the problem and facilitate applying preventive measures to the affected livestock farms
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