1,791 research outputs found

    A New AR Interaction Paradigm for Collaborative TeleAssistance system: The P.O.A

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    International audienceIn this paper, we propose a prototype of a collaborative teleassistance system for mechanical repairs based on Augmented Reality (AR). This technology is generally used to implement specific assistance applications for users, which consist of providing all the information, known as augmentations, required to perform a task. For teletransmission applications, operators are equipped with a wearable computer and a technical support expert can accurately visualize what the operator sees thanks to the teletransmission of the corresponding video stream. Within the framework of remote communication, our aim is to foster collaboration, especially informal collaboration, between the operator and the expert in order to make teleassistance easier and more efficient. To do this we rely on classical repair technologies and on collaborative systems to introduce a new human-machine interaction: the Picking Outlining Adding interaction (POA interaction). With this new interaction paradigm, technical information is provided by directly Picking, Outlining and Adding information to an item in an operator's video stream

    Radiation-Hardness Measurements of High OH‚ąíOH^{-} Content Quartz Fibres Irradiated with 24 GeV Protons up to 1.25 Grad

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    We investigated the darkening of two high OH- content quartz fibres irradiated with 24 GeV protons at the Cern PS facility IRRAD. The two tested fibres have a 0.6 mm quartz core diameter, one with hard plastic cladding (qp) and the other with quartz cladding (qq). These fibres were exposed at about 1.25 Gigarad in 3 weeks. The fibres became opaque below 380nm, and in the range 580-650 nm. The darkening under irradiation and damage recovery after irradiation as a function of dose and time are similar to what we observed with electrons. The typical attenuation at 455 nm are 1.44 + - 0.22 and 2.20 + - 0.15 dB/m at 100 Mrad for qp and qq fibres, respectively. The maximum damage recovery is also observed near this wavelength

    Dietary exposure to pesticide residues and associated health risks in infants and young children ‚Äď Results of the French infant total diet study

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    A total diet study (TDS) was undertaken to estimate the chronic dietary exposure to pesticide residues and health risks for the French infants and young children below 3 years old. As a whole, 516 pesticides and metabolites were analysed in 309 food composite samples including 219 manufactured baby foods and 90 common foods, which cover 97% of infants and young children's diet. These composite samples were prepared using 5,484 food products purchased during all seasons from 2011 to 2012 and processed as consumed. Pesticide residues were detected in 67% of the samples and quantified in 27% of the baby food samples and in 60% of the common foods. Seventy-eight different pesticides were detected and 37 of these quantified at levels ranging from 0.02 to 594 ¬Ķg/kg. The most frequently detected pesticides (greater than 5% samples) were (1) the fungicides 2-phenylphenol, azoxystrobin, boscalid, captan and its metabolite tetrahydrophthalimide, carbendazim, cyprodinil, difenoconazole, dodine, imazalil, metalaxyl, tebuconazole, thiabendazole, (2) the insecticides acetamiprid, pirimiphos-methyl and thiacloprid, (3) the herbicide metribuzin and (4) the synergist piperonyl butoxide. Dietary intakes were estimated for each of the 705 individuals studied and for 431 pesticides incl. 281 with a toxicological reference value (TRV). In the lower-bound scenario, which tends to underestimate the exposure, the TRV were never exceeded. In the upper-bound scenario that overestimates exposure, the estimated intakes exceeded the TRV for dieldrin and lindane (two persistent organic pollutants) and propylene thiourea, a metabolite of propineb. For these three substances, more sensitive analyses are needed to refine the assessment. For 17 other detected and/or prioritised pesticides, the risk could not be characterised due to the lack of a valid TRV, of certain food analyses or the absence of analytical standards for their metabolites. Keywords: Food safety, Infants and young children, Pesticide residues, Total diet study, Exposure assessment, Risk characterizatio

    Antimicrobial resistance among migrants in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    BACKGROUND: Rates of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) are rising globally and there is concern that increased migration is contributing to the burden of antibiotic resistance in Europe. However, the effect of migration on the burden of AMR in Europe has not yet been comprehensively examined. Therefore, we did a systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and synthesise data for AMR carriage or infection in migrants to Europe to examine differences in patterns of AMR across migrant groups and in different settings. METHODS: For this systematic review and meta-analysis, we searched MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus with no language restrictions from Jan 1, 2000, to Jan 18, 2017, for primary data from observational studies reporting antibacterial resistance in common bacterial pathogens among migrants to 21 European Union-15 and European Economic Area countries. To be eligible for inclusion, studies had to report data on carriage or infection with laboratory-confirmed antibiotic-resistant organisms in migrant populations. We extracted data from eligible studies and assessed quality using piloted, standardised forms. We did not examine drug resistance in tuberculosis and excluded articles solely reporting on this parameter. We also excluded articles in which migrant status was determined by ethnicity, country of birth of participants' parents, or was not defined, and articles in which data were not disaggregated by migrant status. Outcomes were carriage of or infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms. We used random-effects models to calculate the pooled prevalence of each outcome. The study protocol is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42016043681. FINDINGS: We identified 2274 articles, of which 23 observational studies reporting on antibiotic resistance in 2319 migrants were included. The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or AMR infection in migrants was 25·4% (95% CI 19·1-31·8; I2 =98%), including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (7·8%, 4·8-10·7; I2 =92%) and antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (27·2%, 17·6-36·8; I2 =94%). The pooled prevalence of any AMR carriage or infection was higher in refugees and asylum seekers (33·0%, 18·3-47·6; I2 =98%) than in other migrant groups (6·6%, 1·8-11·3; I2 =92%). The pooled prevalence of antibiotic-resistant organisms was slightly higher in high-migrant community settings (33·1%, 11·1-55·1; I2 =96%) than in migrants in hospitals (24·3%, 16·1-32·6; I2 =98%). We did not find evidence of high rates of transmission of AMR from migrant to host populations. INTERPRETATION: Migrants are exposed to conditions favouring the emergence of drug resistance during transit and in host countries in Europe. Increased antibiotic resistance among refugees and asylum seekers and in high-migrant community settings (such as refugee camps and detention facilities) highlights the need for improved living conditions, access to health care, and initiatives to facilitate detection of and appropriate high-quality treatment for antibiotic-resistant infections during transit and in host countries. Protocols for the prevention and control of infection and for antibiotic surveillance need to be integrated in all aspects of health care, which should be accessible for all migrant groups, and should target determinants of AMR before, during, and after migration. FUNDING: UK National Institute for Health Research Imperial Biomedical Research Centre, Imperial College Healthcare Charity, the Wellcome Trust, and UK National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Healthcare-associated Infections and Antimictobial Resistance at Imperial College London

    Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron-Barrel Calorimeter Wedges

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    Extensive measurements have been made with pions, electrons and muons on four production wedges of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) hadron barrel (HB) calorimeter in the H2 beam line at CERN with particle momenta varying from 20 to 300 GeV/c. Data were taken both with and without a prototype electromagnetic lead tungstate crystal calorimeter (EB) in front of the hadron calorimeter. The time structure of the events was measured with the full chain of preproduction front-end electronics running at 34 MHz. Moving-wire radioactive source data were also collected for all scintillator layers in the HB. These measurements set the absolute calibration of the HB prior to first pp collisions to approximately 4%

    Energy Response and Longitudinal Shower Profiles Measured in CMS HCAL and Comparison With Geant4

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    The response of the CMS combined electromagnetic and hadron calorimeter to beams of pions with momenta in the range 5-300 GeV/c has been measured in the H2 test beam at CERN. The raw response with the electromagnetic compartment calibrated to electrons and the hadron compartment calibrated to 300 GeV pions may be represented by sigma = (1.2) sqrt{E} oplus (0.095) E. The fraction of energy visible in the calorimeter ranges from 0.72 at 5 GeV to 0.95 at 300 GeV, indicating a substantial nonlinearity. The intrinsic electron to hadron ratios are fit as a function of energy and found to be in the range 1.3-2.7 for the electromagnetic compartment and 1.4-1.8 for the hadronic compartment. The fits are used to correct the non-linearity of the e pi response to 5% over the entire measured range resulting in a substantially improved resolution at low energy. Longitudinal shower profile have been measured in detail and compared to Geant4 models, LHEP-3.7 and QGSP-2.8. At energies below 30 GeV, the data, LHEP and QGSP are in agreement. Above 30 GeV, LHEP gives a more accurate simulation of the longitudinal shower profile

    Synchronization and Timing in CMS HCAL

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    The synchronization and timing of the hadron calorimeter (HCAL) for the Compact Muon Solenoid has been extensively studied with test beams at CERN during the period 2003-4, including runs with 40 MHz structured beam. The relative phases of the signals from different calorimeter segments are timed to 1 ns accuracy using a laser and equalized using programmable delay settings in the front-end electronics. The beam was used to verify the timing and to map out the entire range of pulse shapes over the 25 ns interval between beam crossings. These data were used to make detailed measurements of energy-dependent time slewing effects and to tune the electronics for optimal performance

    Design, Performance and Calibration of the CMS Forward Calorimeter Wedges

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    We report on the test beam results and calibration methods using charged particles of the CMS Forward Calorimeter (HF). The HF calorimeter covers a large pseudorapidity region (3\l |\eta| \le 5), and is essential for large number of physics channels with missing transverse energy. It is also expected to play a prominent role in the measurement of forward tagging jets in weak boson fusion channels. The HF calorimeter is based on steel absorber with embedded fused-silica-core optical fibers where Cherenkov radiation forms the basis of signal generation. Thus, the detector is essentially sensitive only to the electromagnetic shower core and is highly non-compensating (e/h \approx 5). This feature is also manifest in narrow and relatively short showers compared to similar calorimeters based on ionization. The choice of fused-silica optical fibers as active material is dictated by its exceptional radiation hardness. The electromagnetic energy resolution is dominated by photoelectron statistics and can be expressed in the customary form as a/\sqrt{E} + b. The stochastic term a is 198% and the constant term b is 9%. The hadronic energy resolution is largely determined by the fluctuations in the neutral pion production in showers, and when it is expressed as in the electromagnetic case, a = 280% and b = 11%

    Design, Performance, and Calibration of CMS Hadron Endcap Calorimeters

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    Detailed measurements have been made with the CMS hadron calorimeter endcaps (HE) in response to beams of muons, electrons, and pions. Readout of HE with custom electronics and hybrid photodiodes (HPDs) shows no change of performance compared to readout with commercial electronics and photomultipliers. When combined with lead-tungstenate crystals, an energy resolution of 8\% is achieved with 300 GeV/c pions. A laser calibration system is used to set the timing and monitor operation of the complete electronics chain. Data taken with radioactive sources in comparison with test beam pions provides an absolute initial calibration of HE to approximately 4\% to 5\%

    Design, Performance, and Calibration of the CMS Hadron-Outer Calorimeter

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    The CMS hadron calorimeter is a sampling calorimeter with brass absorber and plastic scintillator tiles with wavelength shifting fibres for carrying the light to the readout device. The barrel hadron calorimeter is complemented with an outer calorimeter to ensure high energy shower containment in the calorimeter. Fabrication, testing and calibration of the outer hadron calorimeter are carried out keeping in mind its importance in the energy measurement of jets in view of linearity and resolution. It will provide a net improvement in missing \et measurements at LHC energies. The outer hadron calorimeter will also be used for the muon trigger in coincidence with other muon chambers in CMS
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