57 research outputs found

    Pro- and anti-inflammatory responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells induced by Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages

    Get PDF
    The ability of bacteriophages to kill bacteria is well known, as is their potential use as alternatives to antibiotics. As such, bacteriophages reach high doses locally through infection of their bacterial host in the human body. In this study we assessed the gene expression profile of peripheral blood monocytes from six donors for twelve immunity-related genes (i.e. CD14, CXCL1, CXCL5, IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, IL10, LYZ, SOCS3, TGFBI and TNFA) induced by Staphylococcus aureus phage ISP and four Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages (i.e. PNM, LUZ19, 14- 1 and GE-vB_Pae-Kakheti25). The phages were able to induce clear and reproducible immune responses. Moreover, the overall immune response was very comparable for all five phages: down-regulation of LYZ and TGFBI, and up-regulation of CXCL1, CXCL5, IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL6, SOCS3 and TNFA. The observed immune response was shown to be endotoxinin-dependent and predominantly anti-inflammatory. Addition of endotoxins to the highly purified phages did not cause an immune response comparable to the one induced by the (endotoxin containing) phage lysate. In addition, the use of an intermediate level of endotoxins tipped the immune response to a more anti-inflammatory response, i.e. up-regulation of IL1RN and a strongly reduced expression of CXCL1 and CXCL5

    Experimental phage therapy of burn wound infection : difficult first steps

    Get PDF
    Antibiotic resistance has become a major public health problem and the antibiotics pipeline is running dry. Bacteriophages (phages) may offer an ‘innovative’ means of infection treatment, which can be combined or alternated with antibiotic therapy and may enhance our abilities to treat bacterial infections successfully. Today, in the Queen Astrid Military Hospital, phage therapy is increasingly considered as part of a salvage therapy for patients in therapeutic dead end, particularly those with multidrug resistant infections. We describe the application of a well-defined and quality controlled phage cocktail, active against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, on colonized burn wounds within a modest clinical trial (nine patients, 10 applications), which was approved by a leading Belgian Medical Ethical Committee. No adverse events, clinical abnormalities or changes in laboratory test results that could be related to the application of phages were observed. Unfortunately, this very prudent ‘clinical trial’ did not allow for an adequate evaluation of the efficacy of the phage cocktail. Nevertheless, this first ‘baby step’ revealed several pitfalls and lessons for future experimental phage therapy and helped overcome the psychological hurdles that existed to the use of viruses in the treatment of patients in our burn unit

    Stability of bacteriophages in burn wound care products

    Get PDF
    Bacteriophages could be used along with burn wound care products to enhance antimicrobial pressure during treatment. However, some of the components of the topical antimicrobials that are traditionally used for the prevention and treatment of burn wound infection might affect the activity of phages. Therefore, it is imperative to determine the counteraction of therapeutic phage preparations by burn wound care products before application in patients. Five phages, representatives of two morphological families (Myoviridae and Podoviridae) and active against 3 common bacterial burn wound pathogens (Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) were tested against 13 different products commonly used in the treatment of burn wounds. The inactivation of the phages was quite variable for different phages and different products. Majority of the anti-infective products affected phage activity negatively either immediately or in the course of time, although impact was not always significant. Products with high acidity had the most adverse effect on phages. Our findings demonstrate that during combined treatment the choice of phages and wound care products must be carefully defined in advance

    Characterization of newly isolated lytic bacteriophages active against Acinetobacter baumannii

    Get PDF
    Based on genotyping and host range, two newly isolated lytic bacteriophages, myovirus vB_AbaM_Acibel004 and podovirus vB_AbaP_Acibel007, active against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, were selected from a new phage library for further characterization. The complete genomes of the two phages were analyzed. Both phages are characterized by broad host range and essential features of potential therapeutic phages, such as short latent period (27 and 21 min, respectively), high burst size (125 and 145, respectively), stability of activity in liquid culture and low frequency of occurrence of phage-resistant mutant bacterial cells. Genomic analysis showed that while Acibel004 represents a novel bacteriophage with resemblance to some unclassified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages, Acibel007 belongs to the well-characterized genus of the Phikmvlikevirus. The newly isolated phages can serve as potential candidates for phage cocktails to control A. baumannii infections

    Introducing yesterday's phage therapy in today's medicine

    Get PDF
    The worldwide emergence of 'superbugs' and a dry antibiotic pipeline threaten modern society with a return to the preantibiotic era. Phages - the viruses of bacteria - could help fight antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Phage therapy was first attempted in 1919 by Felix d'Herelle and was commercially developed in the 1930s before being replaced by antibiotics in most of the western world. The current antibiotic crisis fueled a worldwide renaissance of phage therapy. The inherent potential of phages as natural biological bacterium controllers can only be put to use if the potential of the coevolutionary aspect of the couplet phage-bacterium is fully acknowledged and understood, including potential negative consequences. We must learn from past mistakes and set up credible studies to gather the urgently required data with regard to the efficacy of phage therapy and the evolutionary consequences of its (unlimited) use, Unfortunately, our current pharmaceutical economic model, implying costly and time-consuming medicinal product development and marketing, and requiring strong intellectual property protection, is not compatible with traditional sustainable phage therapy. A specific framework with realistic production and documentation requirements, which allows a timely (rapid) supply of safe, tailor-made, natural bacteriophages to patients, should be developed. Ultimately, economic models should be radically reshaped to cater for more sustainable approaches such as phage therapy. This is one of the biggest challenges faced by modern medicine and society as a whole

    Staphylococcus aureus controls interleukin-5 release in upper airway inflammation

    Get PDF
    Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent colonizer of the upper airways in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps, but also resides intramucosally, it has been shown that secreted staphylococcal proteins such as enterotoxins and serine proteases induce the release of cytokines such as IL-5. We have analyzed nasal polyp tissue freshly obtained during routine surgery, which did or did not contain cultivatable S. aureus, to study spontaneous IL-5 production by nasal polyp tissue over 24 and 72 h in tissue culture In S. aureus-positive samples we interfered by killing the bacteria using antibiotics or S. aureus specific intravenous staphylococcal phages (ISP), active or heat-inactivated. Phage-neutralizing antibodies were used to demonstrate the specificity of the phage-mediated effects We monitored S. aureus colony forming units, and identified S. aureus proteins by mass spectrometry We demonstrate that cultivatable S. aureus may be found in type-2 inflamed nasal polyps, the pathogen is replicating within 24 h and secretes proteins, including enterotoxins and serine proteases The presence of S. aureus was associated with a significantly higher release of IL-5 Killing of S. aureus by antibiotics or specific ISP significantly reduced the IL-5 release. The suppressive activity of the bacteriophage on IL-5 be abolished by heat inactivation or anti-phage antibodies. Biological significance In this study, we used high resolution mass spectrometry to identify S. aureus proteins directly in infected nasal polyp tissue and nasal polyp tissue incubated over 24 and 72 h in culture We discovered bacterial proteins including enterotoxins and serine proteases like proteins These experiments indicate a direct role of S. aureus in the regulation of IL-5 production in nasal polyps and may suggest the involvement of bacterial proteins detected in the tissues

    Microbiological and Molecular Assessment of Bacteriophage ISP for the Control of Staphylococcus aureus

    Get PDF
    The increasing antibiotic resistance in bacterial populations requires alternatives for classical treatment of infectious diseases and therefore drives the renewed interest in phage therapy. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major problem in health care settings and live-stock breeding across the world. This research aims at a thorough microbiological, genomic, and proteomic characterization of S. aureus phage ISP, required for therapeutic applications. Host range screening of a large batch of S. aureus isolates and subsequent fingerprint and DNA microarray analysis of the isolates revealed a substantial activity of ISP against 86% of the isolates, including relevant MRSA strains. From a phage therapy perspective, the infection parameters and the frequency of bacterial mutations conferring ISP resistance were determined. Further, ISP was proven to be stable in relevant in vivo conditions and subcutaneous as well as nasal and oral ISP administration to rabbits appeared to cause no adverse effects. ISP encodes 215 gene products on its 138,339 bp genome, 22 of which were confirmed as structural proteins using tandem electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS), and shares strong sequence homology with the ‘Twort-like viruses’. No toxic or virulence-associated proteins were observed. The microbiological and molecular characterization of ISP supports its application in a phage cocktail for therapeutic purposes

    Selection and characterization of a candidate therapeutic bacteriophage that lyses the Escherichia coli O104:H4 strain from the 2011 outbreak in Germany

    Get PDF
    In 2011, a novel strain of O104:H4 Escherichia coli caused a serious outbreak of foodborne hemolytic uremic syndrome and bloody diarrhea in Germany. Antibiotics were of questionable use and 54 deaths occurred. Candidate therapeutic bacteriophages that efficiently lyse the E. coli O104:H4 outbreak strain could be selected rather easily from a phage bank or isolated from the environment. It is argued that phage therapy should be more considered as a potential armament against the growing threat of (resistant) bacterial infection

    Development of a qPCR platform for quantification of the five bacteriophages within bacteriophage cocktail 2 (BFC2)

    Get PDF
    To determine phage titers accurately, reproducibly and in a non-laborious and cost-effective manner, we describe the development of a qPCR platform for molecular quantification of five phages present in bacteriophage cocktail 2 (BFC2). We compared the performance of this molecular approach, with regard to quantification and reproducibility, with the standard culture-based double agar overlay method (DAO). We demonstrated that quantification of each of the five phages in BFC2 was possible by means of qPCR, without prior DNA extraction, but yields were significantly higher in comparison to DAO. Although DAO is assumed to provide an indication of the number of infective phage particles, whereas qPCR only provides information on the number of phage genomes, the difference in yield (qPCR/DAO ratio) was observed to be phage-dependent and appeared rather constant for all phages when analyzing different (freshly prepared) stocks of these phages. While DAO is necessary to determine sensitivity of clinical strains against phages in clinical applications, qPCR might be a valid alternative for rapid and reproducible quantification of freshly prepared stocks, after initial establishment of a correction factor towards DAO
    • …