2,881 research outputs found

    QCD physics at ATLAS

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    Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) measurements represent an extensive part of the early physics program of the ATLAS experiment at LHC. In this contribution a selection of the first ATLAS QCD measurements is presented. The results are based on a part of the data sets collected during 2010 at the centre of mass energy of √s = 7TeV. The contribution includes an overview of the underlying event studies. A large number of measurements involving jets is also illustrated. After the investigation of jet shapes, the measurements of the cross section of the inclusive, dijet, multi-jet and bosons plus jets processes are presented. The angular decorrelations results in dijet events are also discussed. Finally the measurement of the prompt photon cross section is shown. The measurements are compared to the predictions from different Monte Carlo (MC) generators implementing leading-order (LO) matrix elements supplemented by parton showers, and to next-to-leading order (NLO) perturbative QCD (pQCD) calculations

    Dual-readout Calorimetry

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    The RD52 Project at CERN is a pure instrumentation experiment whose goal is to understand the fundamental limitations to hadronic energy resolution, and other aspects of energy measurement, in high energy calorimeters. We have found that dual-readout calorimetry provides heretofore unprecedented information event-by-event for energy resolution, linearity of response, ease and robustness of calibration, fidelity of data, and particle identification, including energy lost to binding energy in nuclear break-up. We believe that hadronic energy resolutions of {\sigma}/E ≈\approx 1 - 2% are within reach for dual-readout calorimeters, enabling for the first time comparable measurement preci- sions on electrons, photons, muons, and quarks (jets). We briefly describe our current progress and near-term future plans. Complete information on all aspects of our work is available at the RD52 website http://highenergy.phys.ttu.edu/dream/.Comment: 10 pages, 10 figures, Snowmass White pape

    Hadron detection with a dual-readout fiber calorimeter

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    In this paper, we describe measurements of the response functions of a fiber-based dual- readout calorimeter for pions, protons and multiparticle "jets" with energies in the range from 10 to 180 GeV. The calorimeter uses lead as absorber material and has a total mass of 1350 kg. It is complemented by leakage counters made of scintillating plastic, with a total mass of 500 kg. The effects of these leakage counters on the calorimeter performance are studied as well. In a separate section, we investigate and compare different methods to measure the energy resolution of a calorimeter. Using only the signals provided by the calorimeter, we demonstrate that our dual-readout calorimeter, calibrated with electrons, is able to reconstruct the energy of proton and pion beam particles to within a few percent at all energies. The fractional widths of the signal distributions for these particles (sigma/E) scale with the beam energy as 30%/sqrt(E), without any additional contributing terms

    Neutron irradiation test on ATLAS MDT chambers

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    Abstract The Monitored Drift Tubes (MDT) chambers of the ATLAS muon spectrometer are crucial for the identification of high-momentum final-state muons, which represent very promising and robust signatures of physics at the LHC. They will operate in a high rate and high background environment and therefore their performances should not significantly degrade for the whole ATLAS data taking. The maximum expected total flux, mainly consisting of neutrons and photons in the MeV range, is of the order of 5 kHz/cm 2 for the barrel MDTs, while at SLHC, with machine working at higher luminosity, fluxes can be 10 times higher. To test detector robustness, a MDT test chamber was exposed to intensive neutron irradiation at the TAPIRO ENEA-Casaccia Research Center facility

    Robot-mediated overground gait training for transfemoral amputees with a powered bilateral hip orthosis: a pilot study

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    Background: Transfemoral amputation is a serious intervention that alters the locomotion pattern, leading to secondary disorders and reduced quality of life. The outcomes of current gait rehabilitation for TFAs seem to be highly dependent on factors such as the duration and intensity of the treatment and the age or etiology of the patient. Although the use of robotic assistance for prosthetic gait rehabilitation has been limited, robotic technologies have demonstrated positive rehabilitative effects for other mobility disorders and may thus offer a promising solution for the restoration of healthy gait in TFAs. This study therefore explored the feasibility of using a bilateral powered hip orthosis (APO) to train the gait of community-ambulating TFAs and the effects on their walking abilities. Methods: Seven participants (46–71 years old with different mobility levels) were included in the study and assigned to one of two groups (namely Symmetry and Speed groups) according to their prosthesis type, mobility level, and prior experience with the exoskeleton. Each participant engaged in a maximum of 12 sessions, divided into one Enrollment session, one Tuning session, two Assessment sessions (conducted before and after the training program), and eight Training sessions, each consisting of 20 minutes of robotically assisted overground walking combined with additional tasks. The two groups were assisted by different torque-phase profiles, aiming at improving symmetry for the Symmetry group and at maximizing the net power transferred by the APO for the Speed group. During the Assessment sessions, participants performed two 6-min walking tests (6mWTs), one with (Exo) and one without (NoExo) the exoskeleton, at either maximal (Symmetry group) or self-selected (Speed group) speed. Spatio-temporal gait parameters were recorded by commercial measurement equipment as well as by the APO sensors, and metabolic efficiency was estimated via the Cost of Transport (CoT). Additionally, kinetic and kinematic data were recorded before and after treatment in the NoExo condition. Results: The one-month training protocol was found to be a feasible strategy to train TFAs, as all participants smoothly completed the clinical protocol with no relevant mechanical failures of the APO. The walking performance of participants improved after the training. During the 6mWT in NoExo, participants in the Symmetry and Speed groups respectively walked 17.4% and 11.7% farther and increased walking speed by 13.7% and 17.9%, with improved temporal and spatial symmetry for the former group and decreased energetic expenditure for the latter. Gait analysis showed that ankle power, step width, and hip kinematics were modified towards healthy reference levels in both groups. In the Exo condition metabolic efficiency was reduced by 3% for the Symmetry group and more than 20% for the Speed group. Conclusions: This study presents the first pilot study to apply a wearable robotic orthosis (APO) to assist TFAs in an overground gait rehabilitation program. The proposed APO-assisted training program was demonstrated as a feasible strategy to train TFAs in a rehabilitation setting. Subjects improved their walking abilities, although further studies are required to evaluate the effectiveness of the APO compared to other gait interventions. Future protocols will include a lighter version of the APO along with optimized assistive strategies

    System Test of the ATLAS Muon Spectrometer in the H8 Beam at the CERN SPS

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    An extensive system test of the ATLAS muon spectrometer has been performed in the H8 beam line at the CERN SPS during the last four years. This spectrometer will use pressurized Monitored Drift Tube (MDT) chambers and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSC) for precision tracking, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) for triggering in the barrel and Thin Gap Chambers (TGCs) for triggering in the end-cap region. The test set-up emulates one projective tower of the barrel (six MDT chambers and six RPCs) and one end-cap octant (six MDT chambers, A CSC and three TGCs). The barrel and end-cap stands have also been equipped with optical alignment systems, aiming at a relative positioning of the precision chambers in each tower to 30-40 micrometers. In addition to the performance of the detectors and the alignment scheme, many other systems aspects of the ATLAS muon spectrometer have been tested and validated with this setup, such as the mechanical detector integration and installation, the detector control system, the data acquisition, high level trigger software and off-line event reconstruction. Measurements with muon energies ranging from 20 to 300 GeV have allowed measuring the trigger and tracking performance of this set-up, in a configuration very similar to the final spectrometer. A special bunched muon beam with 25 ns bunch spacing, emulating the LHC bunch structure, has been used to study the timing resolution and bunch identification performance of the trigger chambers. The ATLAS first-level trigger chain has been operated with muon trigger signals for the first time

    U-PHOS Project: Development of a Large Diameter Pulsating Heat Pipe Experiment on board REXUS 22

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    U-PHOS Project aims to analyse and characterise the behaviour of a large diameter Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP) on board REXUS 22 sounding rocket. A PHP is a passive thermal control device consisting of a serpentine capillary tube, evacuated, partially filled with a working fluid and finally sealed. In this configuration, the liquid and vapour phases are randomly distributed in the form of liquid slugs and vapour plugs. The heat is efficiently transported by means of the self-sustained oscillatory fluid motion driven by the phase change phenomena. On ground conditions, a small diameter is required in order to obtain a confined slug flow regime. In milli-gravity conditions, buoyancy forces become less intense and the PHP diameter may be increased still maintaining the slug/plug flow configuration typical of the PHP operation. Consequently, the PHP heat power capability may be increased too. U-PHOS aims at proving that a Large Diameter PHP effectively works in milli-g conditions by characterizing its thermal response during a sounding rocket flight. The actual PHP tube is made of aluminum (3 mm inner diameter, filled with FC-72), heated at the evaporator by a compact electrical resistance, cooled at the condenser by a Phase Change Material (PCM) embedded in a metallic foam. The tube wall temperatures are recorded by means of Fibre Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors; the local fluid pressure is acquired by means of a pressure transducer. The present work intends to report the actual status of the project, focusing in particular on the experiment improvements with respect to the previous campaign

    Upgraded Pulsating Heat Pipe Only For Space (U-Phos): Results of the 22nd Rexus Sounding Rocket Campaign

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    A large tube may still behave, to a certain extent, as a capillary in a micro-gravity environment. This very basic concept is here applied to a two-phase passive heat transfer devices in order to obtain a new family of hybrid wickless heat pipes. Indeed, a Loop Thermosyphon, which usually consists of a large tube, closed end to end in a loop, evacuated and partially filled with a working fluid and intrinsically gravity assisted, may become a capillary tube in space condition and turn its thermo-fluidic behavior into a so called Pulsating Heat Pipe (PHP), or better, a Space Pulsating Heat Pipe (SPHP). Since the objective of the present work is to experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of such a hybrid device, a SPHP has been designed, built, instrumented and tested both on ground and microgravity conditions on the 22nd ESA REXUS Sounding Rocket Campaign. Ground tests demonstrate that the device effectively work as a gravity assisted loop thermosyphon, whether the sounding rocket data clearly reveal a change in the thermal hydraulic behavior very similar to the PHP. Since a microgravity period of approximately 120s is not sufficient to reach a pseudo steady state regime, further investigation on a longer term weightless condition is mandatory

    Dual-Readout Calorimetry with Lead Tungstate Crystals

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    Results are presented of beam tests in which a small electromagnetic calorimeter consisting of lead tungstate crystals was exposed to 50 GeV electrons and pions. This calorimeter was backed up by the DREAM Dual-Readout calorimeter, which measures the scintillation and \v{C}erenkov light produced in the shower development, using two different media. The signals from the crystal calorimeter were analyzed in great detail in an attempt to determine the contributions from these two types of light to the signals, event by event. This information makes it possible to eliminate the dominating source of fluctuations and thus achieve an important improvement in hadronic calorimeter performance.Comment: Preprint submitted to Nucl. Instrum. Meth. on July 23, 200

    Measurement of the cross-section and charge asymmetry of WW bosons produced in proton-proton collisions at s=8\sqrt{s}=8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

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    This paper presents measurements of the W+→Ό+ÎœW^+ \rightarrow \mu^+\nu and W−→Ό−ΜW^- \rightarrow \mu^-\nu cross-sections and the associated charge asymmetry as a function of the absolute pseudorapidity of the decay muon. The data were collected in proton--proton collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the ATLAS experiment at the LHC and correspond to a total integrated luminosity of 20.2~\mbox{fb^{-1}}. The precision of the cross-section measurements varies between 0.8% to 1.5% as a function of the pseudorapidity, excluding the 1.9% uncertainty on the integrated luminosity. The charge asymmetry is measured with an uncertainty between 0.002 and 0.003. The results are compared with predictions based on next-to-next-to-leading-order calculations with various parton distribution functions and have the sensitivity to discriminate between them.Comment: 38 pages in total, author list starting page 22, 5 figures, 4 tables, submitted to EPJC. All figures including auxiliary figures are available at https://atlas.web.cern.ch/Atlas/GROUPS/PHYSICS/PAPERS/STDM-2017-13
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