2,170 research outputs found

    GEANT4 simulations of the n_TOF spallation source and their benchmarking

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    Neutron production and transport in the spallation target of the n_TOF facility at CERN has been simulated with GEANT4. The results obtained with different models of high-energy nucleon-nucleus interaction have been compared with the measured characteristics of the neutron beam, in particular the flux and its dependence on neutron energy, measured in the first experimental area. The best agreement at present, within 20% for the absolute value of the flux, and within few percent for the energy dependence in the whole energy range from thermal to 1 GeV, is obtained with the INCL++ model coupled with the GEANT4 native de-excitation model. All other available models overestimate by a larger factor, of up to 70%, the n_TOF neutron flux. The simulations are also able to accurately reproduce the neutron beam energy resolution function, which is essentially determined by the moderation time inside the target/moderator assembly. The results here reported provide confidence on the use of GEANT4 for simulations of spallation neutron sources

    Photodetector and scintillation crystals requirements for gamma-ray imaging

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    The diffusion of the PET and SPET techniques in different applications, like investigation on small organs and tissues or animal imaging, has induced in the past years the researchers to develop modular scintillation cameras to have compactness and versatility in order to obtain dimensions and configurations suitable to the particular application. To this purpose different photodetectors have been studied, as an alternative to the photomultiplier tubes (PMT) based on semiconductor technology. At the same time new scintillating crystals have been tested to match the requirements like high light yield or fast decay time, needed for SPET and PET application, respectively. In this paper we have investigated the photodetector and scintillation crystals requirements to optimize a gamma-ray imager based on scintillation crystals. To this aim we show results about the principal parameters characterizing a gamma-ray imaging, like energy and spatial resolution. The performances of a continuous LaBr3:Ce crystal (49√ó49√ó4mm3+3mm glass window) are compared to the ones from a pixellated and continuous NaI:Tl crystal, coupled to multi-anode photomultiplier tube (Hamamatsu H8500 MA-PMT). Furthermore the results are supported with Monte Carlo simulations. With the lanthanum detector, we obtain 1.1mm of intrinsic spatial resolution, comparable with that predicted by the MC simulations. We test also the new ultra bialkali PMT Hamamatsu R7600-200 with a QE = 42%, obtaining an improvement in terms of energy resolution of about 25%, respect to a standard PMT, with a LaBr3:Ce cylinder (1/2" ÔŅĹÔŅĹŌÜ √ó 1/2" thickness)

    Fission at intermediate nucleon energies

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    In the present work Monte Carlo calculations of fission of actinides and pre- actinides induced by protons and neutrons in the energy range from 100 MeV to 1 GeV are carried out by means of a recent version of the Liège Intranuclear Cascade Model, INCL++, coupled with different evaporation-fission codes, in particular GEMINI++ and ABLA07. Fission model parameters are adjusted on experimental (p, f) cross sections and used to predict (n, f) cross sections, in order to provide a theoretical support to the campaign of neutron cross section measurements at the n-TOF facility at CERN. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd

    Prokaryotic Diversity of the Composting Thermophilic Phase: The Case of Ground Coffee Compost

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    Waste biomass coming from a local coffee company, which supplied burnt ground coffee after an incorrect roasting process, was employed as a starting material in the composting plant of the Experimental Station of the University of Naples Federico II at Castel Volturno (CE). The direct molecular characterization of compost using 13C-NMR spectra, which was acquired through cross-polarization magic-angle spinning, showed a hydrophobicity index of 2.7% and an alkyl/hydroxyalkyl index of 0.7%. Compost samples that were collected during the early ‚Äúactive thermophilic phase‚ÄĚ (when the composting temperature was 63 C) were analyzed for the prokaryotic community composition and activities. Two complementary approaches, i.e., genomic and predictive metabolic analysis of the 16S rRNA V3‚ÄďV4 amplicon and culture-dependent analysis, were combined to identify the main microbial factors that characterized the composting process. The whole microbial community was dominated by Firmicutes. The predictive analysis of the metabolic functionality of the community highlighted the potential degradation of peptidoglycan and the ability of metal chelation, with both functions being extremely useful for the revitalization and fertilization of agricultural soils. Finally, three biotechnologically relevant Firmicutes members, i.e., Geobacillus thermodenitrificans subsp. calidus, Aeribacillus pallidus, and Ureibacillus terrenus (strains CAF1, CAF2, and CAF5, respectively) were isolated from the ‚Äúactive thermophilic phase‚ÄĚ of the coffee composting. All strains were thermophiles growing at the optimal temperature of 60 C. Our findings contribute to the current knowledge on thermophilic composting microbiology and valorize burnt ground coffee as waste material with biotechnological potentialities

    Gamma emission tomosynthesis based on an automated slant hole collimation system

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    The imaging capabilities of radioisotope molecular imaging systems are limited by their ring geometry and by the object-to-detector distance, which impairs spatial resolution, efficiency and image quality. These detection capabilities could be enhanced by performing acquisitions with dedicated gamma cameras placed in close proximity to the object that has to be examined. The main aim of this work is to develop a compact camera suitable for detecting small and low-contrast lesions, with a higher detection efficiency than conventional SPECT, through a gamma emission tomosynthesis method. In this contribution a prototype of a new automated slant hole collimator, coupled to a small Field of View (FoV) gamma camera, is presented. The proposed device is able to acquire planar projection images at different angles without rotating around the patient body; these projection images are then three-dimensional reconstructed. Therefore, in order to perform the volumetric reconstruction of the studied object, the traditional Back Projection (BP) reconstruction is compared with the Shift And Add (SAA) method. In order to verify the effectiveness of the technique and to test the image reconstruction algorithms, a Monte Carlo simulation, based on the GEANT4 code, was implemented. The method was also validated by a set of experimental measurements. The discussed device is designed to work in patient proximity for detecting lesions placed at a distances ranged from 0 to 8 cm, thus allowing few millimeters planar resolutions and sagittal resolution of about 2 cm. The new collimation method implies high-resolution capabilities demonstrated by reconstructing the projection images through the BP and the SAA methods. The latter is simpler than BP and produces comparable spatial resolutions with respect to the traditional tomographic method, while preserving the image counts. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl

    High-accuracy determination of the neutron flux in the new experimental area n_TOF-EAR2 at CERN

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    A new high flux experimental area has recently become operational at the n_TOF facility at CERN. This new measuring station, n_TOF-EAR2, is placed at the end of a vertical beam line at a distance of approximately 20m from the spallation target. The characterization of the neutron beam, in terms of flux, spatial profile and resolution function, is of crucial importance for the feasibility study and data analysis of all measurements to be performed in the new area. In this paper, the measurement of the neutron flux, performed with different solid-state and gaseous detection systems, and using three neutron-converting reactions considered standard in different energy regions is reported. The results of the various measurements have been combined, yielding an evaluated neutron energy distribution in a wide energy range, from 2meV to 100MeV, with an accuracy ranging from 2%, at low energy, to 6% in the high-energy region. In addition, an absolute normalization of the n_TOF-EAR2 neutron flux has been obtained by means of an activation measurement performed with 197Au foils in the beam.Peer reviewe

    Recoil Proton Telescopes and Parallel Plate Avalanche Counters for the 235^{235}U(n,f) cross section measurement relative to H(n,n)H between 10 and 450 MeV neutron energy

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    With the aim of measuring the 235^{235}U(n,f) cross section at the n\_TOF facility at CERN over a wide neutron energy range, a detection system consisting of two fission detectors and three detectors for neutron flux determination was realized. The neutron flux detectors are Recoil Proton Telescopes (RPT), based on scintillators and solid state detectors, conceived to detect recoil protons from the neutron-proton elastic scattering reaction. This system, along with a fission chamber and an array of parallel plate avalanche counters for fission event detection, was installed for the measurement at the n\_TOF facility in 2018, at CERN. An overview of the performances of two RPTs - especially developed for this measurement - and of the parallel plate avalanche counters are described in this article. In particular, the characterization in terms of detection efficiency by Monte Carlo simulations and response to neutron beam, the study of the background, dead time correction and characterization of the samples, are reported. The results of the present investigation show that the performances of these detectors are suitable for accurate measurements of fission reaction cross sections in the range from 10 to 450~MeV
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