222 research outputs found

    Turbulent entrainment origin of protostellar outflows

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    Protostellar outflow is a prominent process that accompanies the formation of stars. It is generally agreed that wide-angled protostellar outflows come from the interaction between the wind from a forming star and the ambient gas. However, it is still unclear how the interaction takes place. In this work, we theoretically investigate the possibility that the outflow results from interaction between the wind and the ambient gas in the form of turbulent entrainment. In contrast to the previous models, turbulent motion of the ambient gas around the protostar is taken into account. In our model, the ram-pressure of the wind balances the turbulent ram-pressure of the ambient gas, and the outflow consists of the ambient gas entrained by the wind. The calculated outflow from our modelling exhibits a conical shape. The total mass of the outflow is determined by the turbulent velocity of the envelope as well as the outflow age, and the velocity of the outflow is several times higher than the velocity dispersion of the ambient gas. The outflow opening angle increases with the strength of the wind and decreases with the increasing ambient gas turbulence. The outflow exhibits a broad line width at every position. We propose that the turbulent entrainment process, which happens ubiquitously in nature, plays a universal role in shaping protostellar outflows.Comment: 15 pages, accepted for publication in A&

    A 500 pc filamentary gas wisp in the disk of the Milky Way

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    Star formation occurs in molecular gas. In previous studies, the structure of the molecular gas has been studied in terms of molecular clouds, but has been overlooked beyond the cloud scale. We present an observational study of the molecular gas at 49.5 degree <l<52.5 degree and -5.0 km/s <v_lsr <17.4 km/s. The molecular gas is found in the form of a huge (>= 500 pc) filamentary gas wisp. This has a large physical extent and a velocity dispersion of ~5 km/s. The eastern part of the filamentary gas wisp is located ~130 pc above the Galactic disk (which corresponds to 1.5-4 e-folding scale-heights), and the total mass of the gas wisp is >= 1 X 10^5 M_sun. It is composed of two molecular clouds and an expanding bubble. The velocity structure of the gas wisp can be explained as a smooth quiescent component disturbed by the expansion of a bubble. That the length of the gas wisp exceeds by much the thickness of the molecular disk of the Milky Way is consistent with the cloud-formation scenario in which the gas is cold prior to the formation of molecular clouds. Star formation in the filamentary gas wisp occurs at the edge of a bubble (G52L nebula), which is consistent with some models of triggered star formation.Comment: Accepted for publication in A&

    G-virial: Gravity-based structure analysis of molecular clouds

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    We present the G-virial method (available at http://gxli.github.io/G-virial/) which aims to quantify (1) the importance of gravity in molecular clouds in the position-position-velocity (PPV) space, and (2) properties of the gas condensations in molecular clouds. Different from previous approaches that calculate the virial parameter for different regions, our new method takes gravitational interactions between all the voxels in 3D PPV data cubes into account, and generates maps of the importance of gravity. This map can be combined with the original data cube to derive relations such as the mass-radius relation. Our method is important for several reasons. First, it offers the the ability to quantify the centrally condensed structures in the 3D PPV data cubes, and enables us to compare them in an uniform framework. Second, it allows us to understand the importance of gravity at different locations in the data cube, and provides a global picture of gravity in clouds. Third, it offers a robust approach to decomposing the data into different regions which are gravitationally coherent. To demonstrate the application of our method we identified regions from the Perseus and Ophiuchus molecular clouds, and analyzed their properties. We found an increase in the importance of gravity towards the centers of the individual molecular condensations. We also quantified the properties of the regions in terms of mass-radius and mass-velocity relations. Through evaluating the virial parameters based on the G-virial, we found that all our regions are almost gravitationally bound. Cluster-forming regions appear are more centrally condensed.Comment: Accepted by A&

    High-angular resolution observations of methanol in the infrared dark cloud core G11.11-0.12P1

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    Recent studies suggest that infrared dark clouds (IRDCs) have the potential of harboring the earliest stages of massive star formation and indeed evidence for this is found toward distinct regions within them. We present a study with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer of a core in the archetypal filamentary IRDC G11.11-0.12 at few arcsecond resolution to determine its physical and chemical structure. The data consist of continuum and line observations covering the C34S 2-1 line and the methanol 2_k-1_k v_t=0 lines at 3mm and the methanol 5_k-4_k v_t =0 lines at 1mm. Our observations show extended emission in the continuum at 1 and 3 mm. The methanol 2_k-1_k v_t=0 emission presents three maxima extending over 1 pc scale (when merged with single-dish short-spacing observations); one of the maxima is spatially coincident with the continuum emission. The fitting results show enhanced methanol fractional abundance (~3x10^-8) at the central peak with respect to the other two peaks, where it decreases by about an order of magnitude (~4-6x10^-9). Evidence of extended 4.5 microns emission, "wings" in the CH3OH 2_k-1_k spectra, and CH3OH abundance enhancement point to the presence of an outflow in the East-West direction. In addition, we find a gradient of ~4 km/s in the same direction, which we interpret as being produced by an outflow(s)-cloud interaction.Comment: Accepted for publication to A&
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