19,264 research outputs found

    Matter loops corrected modified gravity in Palatini formulation

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    Recently, corrections to the standard Einstein-Hilbert action are proposed to explain the current cosmic acceleration in stead of introducing dark energy. In the Palatini formulation of those modified gravity models, there is an important observation due to Arkani-Hamed: matter loops will give rise to a correction to the modified gravity action proportional to the Ricci scalar of the metric. In the presence of such term, we show that the current forms of modified gravity models in Palatini formulation, specifically, the 1/R gravity and ln⁥R\ln R gravity, will have phantoms. Then we study the possible instabilities due to the presence of phantom fields. We show that the strong instability in the metric formulation of 1/R gravity indicated by Dolgov and Kawasaki will not appear and the decay timescales for the phantom fields may be long enough for the theories to make sense as effective field theory . On the other hand, if we change the sign of the modification terms to eliminate the phantoms, some other inconsistencies will arise for the various versions of the modified gravity models. Finally, we comment on the universal property of the Palatini formulation of the matter loops corrected modified gravity models and its implications.Comment: 11 pages, 1 figures, References adde

    Stabilization of networked control systems via dynamic output-feedback controllers

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    This paper investigates the problem of stabilization of networked control systems via dynamic output-feedback controllers. The physical plant and the dynamic controller are in continuous time, and a communication channel exists between the output of the physical plant and the input of the dynamic controller. Three important communication features are considered: measurement quantization, signal transmission delay, and data packet dropout, which appear typically in a networked environment. Attention is focused on the design of dynamic output-feedback controllers which ensure asymptotic stability of the closed-loop systems. Linear matrix inequality (LMI)-based conditions are formulated for the existence of admissible controllers. If these conditions are satisfied, a desired controller can be readily constructed. A satellite system is used to illustrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed controller design method.published_or_final_versio

    Aberrant posterior cingulate connectivity classify first-episode schizophrenia from controls: A machine learning study

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    Background Posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) is a key aspect of the default mode network (DMN). Aberrant PCC functional connectivity (FC) is implicated in schizophrenia, but the potential for PCC related changes as biological classifier of schizophrenia has not yet been evaluated. Methods We conducted a data-driven approach using resting-state functional MRI data to explore differences in PCC-based region- and voxel-wise FC patterns, to distinguish between patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) and demographically matched healthy controls (HC). Discriminative PCC FCs were selected via false discovery rate estimation. A gradient boosting classifier was trained and validated based on 100 FES vs. 93 HC. Subsequently, classification models were tested in an independent dataset of 87 FES patients and 80 HC using resting-state data acquired on a different MRI scanner. Results Patients with FES had reduced connectivity between PCC and frontal areas, left parahippocampal regions, left anterior cingulate cortex, and right inferior parietal lobule, but hyperconnectivity with left lateral temporal regions. Predictive voxel-wise clusters were similar to region-wise selected brain areas functionally connected with PCC in relation to discriminating FES from HC subject categories. Region-wise analysis of FCs yielded a relatively high predictive level for schizophrenia, with an average accuracy of 72.28% in the independent samples, while selected voxel-wise connectivity yielded an accuracy of 68.72%. Conclusion FES exhibited a pattern of both increased and decreased PCC-based connectivity, but was related to predominant hypoconnectivity between PCC and brain areas associated with DMN, that may be a useful differential feature revealing underpinnings of neuropathophysiology for schizophrenia

    Comprehensive Characterization of the Transmitted/Founder env Genes From a Single MSM Cohort in China

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    Background: The men having sex with men (MSM) population has become one of the major risk groups for HIV-1 infection in China. However, the epidemiological patterns, function of the env genes, and autologous and heterologous neutralization activity in the same MSM population have not been systematically characterized. Methods: The env gene sequences were obtained by the single genome amplification. The time to the most recent common ancestor was estimated for each genotype using the Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach. Coreceptor usage was determined in NP-2 cells. Neutralization was analyzed using Env pseudoviruses in TZM-bl cells. Results: We have obtained 547 full-length env gene sequences by single genome amplification from 30 acute/early HIV-1–infected individuals in the Beijing MSM cohort. Three genotypes (subtype B, CRF01_AE, and CRF07_BC) were identified and 20% of the individuals were infected with multiple transmitted/founder (T/F) viruses. The tight clusters of the MSM sequences regardless of geographic origins indicated nearly exclusive transmission within the MSM population and limited number of introductions. The time to the most recent common ancestor for each genotype was 10–15 years after each was first introduced in China. Disparate preferences for coreceptor usages among 3 genotypes might lead to the changes in percentage of different genotypes in the MSM population over time. The genotype-matched and genotype-mismatched neutralization activity varied among the 3 genotypes. Conclusions: The identification of unique characteristics for transmission, coreceptor usage, neutralization profile, and epidemic patterns of HIV-1 is critical for the better understanding of transmission mechanisms, development of preventive strategies, and evaluation of vaccine efficacy in the MSM population in China

    Cosmological perturbations in Palatini modified gravity

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    Two approaches to the study of cosmological density perturbations in modified theories of Palatini gravity have recently been discussed. These utilise, respectively, a generalisation of Birkhoff's theorem and a direct linearization of the gravitational field equations. In this paper these approaches are compared and contrasted. The general form of the gravitational lagrangian for which the two frameworks yield identical results in the long-wavelength limit is derived. This class of models includes the case where the lagrangian is a power-law of the Ricci curvature scalar. The evolution of density perturbations in theories of the type f(R)=R−c/Rbf(R)=R-c /R^ b is investigated numerically. It is found that the results obtained by the two methods are in good agreement on sufficiently large scales when the values of the parameters (b,c) are consistent with current observational constraints. However, this agreement becomes progressively poorer for models that differ significantly from the standard concordance model and as smaller scales are considered

    The nearly Newtonian regime in Non-Linear Theories of Gravity

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    The present paper reconsiders the Newtonian limit of models of modified gravity including higher order terms in the scalar curvature in the gravitational action. This was studied using the Palatini variational principle in [Meng X. and Wang P.: Gen. Rel. Grav. {\bf 36}, 1947 (2004)] and [Dom\'inguez A. E. and Barraco D. E.: Phys. Rev. D {\bf 70}, 043505 (2004)] with contradicting results. Here a different approach is used, and problems in the previous attempts are pointed out. It is shown that models with negative powers of the scalar curvature, like the ones used to explain the present accelerated expansion, as well as their generalization which include positive powers, can give the correct Newtonian limit, as long as the coefficients of these powers are reasonably small. Some consequences of the performed analysis seem to raise doubts for the way the Newtonian limit was derived in the purely metric approach of fourth order gravity [Dick R.: Gen. Rel. Grav. {\bf 36}, 217 (2004)]. Finally, we comment on a recent paper [Olmo G. J.: Phys. Rev. D {\bf 72}, 083505 (2005)] in which the problem of the Newtonian limit of both the purely metric and the Palatini formalism is discussed, using the equivalent Brans--Dicke theory, and with which our results partly disagree.Comment: typos corrected, replaced to match published versio

    Constraining f(R) gravity in the Palatini formalism

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    Although several models of f(R)f(R) theories of gravity within the Palatini approach have been studied already, the interest was concentrated on those that have an effect on the late-time evolution of the universe, by the inclusion for example of terms inversely proportional to the scalar curvature in the gravitational action. However, additional positive powers of the curvature also provide interesting early-time phenomenology, like inflation, and the presence of such terms in the action is equally, if not more, probable. In the present paper models with both additional positive and negative powers of the scalar curvature are studied. Their effect on the evolution of the universe is investigated for all cosmological eras, and various constraints are put on the extra terms in the actions. Additionally, we examine the extent to which the new terms in positive powers affect the late-time evolution of the universe and the related observables, which also determines our ability to probe their presence in the gravitational action.Comment: reference update and minor changes to match published versio

    Acceleration of the universe in the Einstein frame of a metric-affine f(R) gravity

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    We show that inflation and current cosmic acceleration can be generated by a metric-affine f(R) gravity formulated in the Einstein conformal frame, if the gravitational Lagrangian L(R) contains both positive and negative powers of the curvature scalar R. In this frame, we give the equations for the expansion of the homogeneous and isotropic matter-dominated universe in the case L(R)=R+{R^3}/{\beta^2}-{\alpha^2}/{3R}, where \alpha and \beta are constants. We also show that gravitational effects of matter in such a universe at very late stages of its expansion are weakened by a factor that tends to 3/4, and the energy density of matter \epsilon scales the same way as in the \Lambda-CDM model only when \kappa*\epsilon<<\alpha.Comment: 12 pages; published versio

    Nuclear charge-exchange excitations in localized covariant density functional theory

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    The recent progress in the studies of nuclear charge-exchange excitations with localized covariant density functional theory is briefly presented, by taking the fine structure of spin-dipole excitations in 16O as an example. It is shown that the constraints introduced by the Fock terms of the relativistic Hartree-Fock scheme into the particle-hole residual interactions are straightforward and robust.Comment: 4 pages, 1 figure, Proceedings of INPC2013, Florence, Italy, 2-7 June 201