60 research outputs found

    Late diagnosis of abdominal aortic aneurysms substantiates underutilization of abdominal aortic aneurysm screening for Medicare beneficiaries

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    ObjectiveAbdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening remains largely underutilized in the U.S., and it is likely that the proportion of patients with aneurysms requiring prompt treatment is much higher compared with well-screened populations. The goals of this study were to determine the proportion of AAAs that required prompt repair after diagnostic abdominal imaging for U.S. Medicare beneficiaries and to identify patient and hospital factors contributing to early vs late diagnosis of AAA.MethodsData were extracted from Medicare claims records for patients at least 65 years old with complete coverage for 2 years who underwent intact AAA repair from 2006 to 2009. Preoperative ultrasound and computed tomography was tabulated from 2002 to repair. We defined early diagnosis of AAA as a patient with a time interval of greater than 6 months between the first imaging examination and the index procedure, and late diagnosis as patients who underwent the index procedure within 6 months of the first imaging examination.ResultsOf 17,626 patients who underwent AAA repair, 14,948 met inclusion criteria. Mean age was 77.5 ± 6.1 years. Early diagnosis was identified for 60.6% of patients receiving AAA repair, whereas 39.4% were repaired after a late diagnosis. Early diagnosis rates increased from 2006 to 2009 (59.8% to 63.4%; P < .0001) and were more common for intact repair compared with repair after rupture (62.9% vs 35.1%; P < .0001) and for women compared with men (66.3% vs 59.0%; P < .0001). On multivariate analysis, repair of intact vs ruptured AAAs (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.7-3.6) and female sex (odds ratio, 1.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-1.5) remained the strongest predictors of surveillance. Although intact repairs were more likely to be diagnosed early, over one-third of patients undergoing repair for ruptured AAAs received diagnostic abdominal imaging greater than 6 months prior to surgery.ConclusionsDespite advances in screening practices, significant missed opportunities remain in the U.S. Medicare population for improving AAA care. It remains common for AAAs to be diagnosed when they are already at risk for rupture. In addition, a significant proportion of patients with early imaging rupture prior to repair. Our findings suggest that improved mechanisms for observational management are needed to ensure optimal preoperative care for patients with AAAs

    Predictors of surgical site infection after open lower extremity revascularization

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    ObjectivesSurgical site infection (SSI) after open surgery for lower extremity revascularization is a serious complication that may lead to graft infection, prolonged hospitalization, and increased cost. Rates of SSI after revascularization vary widely, with most studies reported from single institutions. The objective of this study was to describe the rate and predictors of SSI after surgery for arterial occlusive disease using national data, and to identify any association between SSI and length of hospital stay, reoperation, graft loss, and mortality.MethodsPatients who underwent lower extremity arterial bypass or thromboendarterectomy from 2005-2008 were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS-NSQIP) participant use files. Multivariate logistic regression identified predictors of SSI. Odds ratios were adjusted for patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and operative factors. The association between SSI and other 30-day outcomes such as mortality and graft failure was determined.ResultsOf 12,330 patients who underwent revascularization, 1367 (11.1%) were diagnosed with an SSI within 30 days. Multivariate predictors of SSI included female gender (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-1.6), obesity (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.4), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5), dialysis (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.1-2.1), preoperative hyponatremia (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.4), and length of operation >4 hours (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.6). SSI was associated with prolonged (>10 days) hospital stay (OR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.4-2.1) and higher rates of 30-day graft loss (OR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-3.1) and reoperation (OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 3.1-4.6). SSI was not associated with increased 30-day mortality.ConclusionSSI is a common complication after open revascularization and is associated with a more than twofold increased risk of early graft loss and reoperation. Several patient and operation-related risk factors that predict postoperative SSI were identified, suggesting that targeted improvements in perioperative care may decrease complications and improve outcomes in this patient population

    Forearm loop arteriovenous grafts preserve and may create new upper arm access sites

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    IntroductionThis study evaluated the mid-term patency of forearm loop arteriovenous grafts and the dilation of previously inadequate upper arm basilic and cephalic veins after failed forearm loop arteriovenous graft.MethodsAll access procedures from September 2009 to December 2015 were reviewed. Vein mapping measurements were used to determine whether there was "adequate" upper arm cephalic and/or basilic vein, defined as ⩾3 mm by duplex ultrasound, at the time of forearm loop arteriovenous graft creation. Outcomes of forearm loop arteriovenous graft were compared with upper arm arteriovenous fistula, and primary and cumulative patencies were evaluated.ResultsThirty-eight forearm loop arteriovenous grafts and 278 upper arm arteriovenous fistulas were created. In the forearm loop arteriovenous graft cohort, nine were inserted with adequate upper arm vein, group A, and 29 were inserted with inadequate upper arm vein, group B. Cumulative patency was lower for forearm loop arteriovenous graft compared with upper arm arteriovenous fistula at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years (67% vs 91%, 61% vs 85%, and 49% vs 80%, respectively, P &lt; .01). Comparison of group A forearm loop arteriovenous graft and upper arm arteriovenous fistula did not show a statistical difference in cumulative patency at 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years (P = .80, .62, and .70, respectively). Of group B with failed forearm loop arteriovenous graft, 36% became candidates for upper arm arteriovenous fistula with dilation of ipsilateral upper arm cephalic or basilic vein to ⩾3 mm.ConclusionIn this study, forearm loop arteriovenous graft with adequate upper arm vein did not show a statistical difference in mid-term patencies compared with upper arm arteriovenous fistula. For those forearm loop arteriovenous grafts with inadequate upper arm vein, approximately one-third of patients became candidates for upper arm arteriovenous fistula demonstrating the benefits forearm loop arteriovenous graft
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