141 research outputs found

    Structure strategy interventions: Increasing reading comprehension of expository text

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    In this review of the literature we examine empirical studies designed to teach the structure strategy to increase reading comprehension of expository texts. First, we review the research that has served as a foundation for many of the studies examining the effects of text structure instruction. Text structures generally can be grouped into six categories: comparison, problem-and solution, causation, sequence, collection, and description. Next, we provide a historical look at research of structure strategyinterventions. Strategy interventions employ modeling, practice, and feedback to teach students how to use text structure strategically and eventually automatically. Finally, we review recent text structure interventions for elementary school students. We present similarities and differences among these studies and applications for instruction. Our review of intervention research suggests that direct instruction, modeling, scaffolding, elaborated feedback, and adaptation of instruction to student performance are keys in teaching students to strategically use knowledge about text structure

    Children’s Use of Comparative Text Signals: The Relationship between Age and Comprehension Ability

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    In this study we examined age differences in children and young adolescents’ use of comparative text signals in order to gain insights into the development of signaling knowledge. We predicted that differential patterns of age differences would be found for readers classified as having low, middle, and high comprehension ability, and that the middle group of comprehenders would have the greatest amount of variability with age. 4th-, 6th-, and 9th-grade readers’ use of words employed to mark comparative relationships were compared by means of an open cloze. Results from analyses of competency of use scores, indicated that readers in the middle comprehension group had a larger number of significant increases in competency with age. Fewer age differences in overall competency were found for readers in low and high comprehension groups. Analysis of individual signals indicated that patterns of age differences may also vary in relation to the particular signal being processed. The findings from this study suggest that readers’ overall comprehension ability may influence the acquisition and use of text signals

    Computational and Experimental Study of Supersonic Nozzle Flow and Shock Interactions

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    This study focused on the capability of NASA Tetrahedral Unstructured Software System's CFD code USM3D capability to predict the interaction between a shock and supersonic plume flow. Previous studies, published in 2004, 2009 and 2013, investigated USM3D's supersonic plume flow results versus historical experimental data. This current study builds on that research by utilizing the best practices from the early papers for properly capturing the plume flow and then adding a wedge acting as a shock generator. This computational study is in conjunction with experimental tests conducted at the Glenn Research Center 1'x1' Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The comparison of the computational and experimental data shows good agreement for location and strength of the shocks although there are vertical shifts between the data sets that may be do to the measurement technique

    Practical guidance for clinical microbiology laboratories: Viruses causing acute respiratory tract infections

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    Respiratory viral infections are associated with a wide range of acute syndromes and infectious disease processes in children and adults worldwide. Many viruses are implicated in these infections, and these viruses are spread largely via respiratory means between humans but also occasionally from animals to humans. This article is an American Society for Microbiology (ASM)-sponsored Practical Guidance for Clinical Microbiology (PGCM) document identifying best practices for diagnosis and characterization of viruses that cause acute respiratory infections and replaces the most recent prior version of the ASM-sponsored Cumitech 21 document, Laboratory Diagnosis of Viral Respiratory Disease, published in 1986. The scope of the original document was quite broad, with an emphasis on clinical diagnosis of a wide variety of infectious agents and laboratory focus on antigen detection and viral culture. The new PGCM document is designed to be used by laboratorians in a wide variety of diagnostic and public health microbiology/virology laboratory settings worldwide. The article provides guidance to a rapidly changing field of diagnostics and outlines the epidemiology and clinical impact of acute respiratory viral infections, including preferred methods of specimen collection and current methods for diagnosis and characterization of viral pathogens causing acute respiratory tract infections. Compared to the case in 1986, molecular techniques are now the preferred diagnostic approaches for the detection of acute respiratory viruses, and they allow for automation, high-throughput workflows, and near-patient testing. These changes require quality assurance programs to prevent laboratory contamination as well as strong preanalytical screening approaches to utilize laboratory resources appropriately. Appropriate guidance from laboratorians to stakeholders will allow for appropriate specimen collection, as well as correct test ordering that will quickly identify highly transmissible emerging pathogens

    The Ontology of Biological Attributes (OBA)-computational traits for the life sciences.

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    Existing phenotype ontologies were originally developed to represent phenotypes that manifest as a character state in relation to a wild-type or other reference. However, these do not include the phenotypic trait or attribute categories required for the annotation of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) mappings or any population-focussed measurable trait data. The integration of trait and biological attribute information with an ever increasing body of chemical, environmental and biological data greatly facilitates computational analyses and it is also highly relevant to biomedical and clinical applications. The Ontology of Biological Attributes (OBA) is a formalised, species-independent collection of interoperable phenotypic trait categories that is intended to fulfil a data integration role. OBA is a standardised representational framework for observable attributes that are characteristics of biological entities, organisms, or parts of organisms. OBA has a modular design which provides several benefits for users and data integrators, including an automated and meaningful classification of trait terms computed on the basis of logical inferences drawn from domain-specific ontologies for cells, anatomical and other relevant entities. The logical axioms in OBA also provide a previously missing bridge that can computationally link Mendelian phenotypes with GWAS and quantitative traits. The term components in OBA provide semantic links and enable knowledge and data integration across specialised research community boundaries, thereby breaking silos

    Chemical intervention in plant sugar signalling increases yield and resilience

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    The pressing global issue of food insecurity due to population growth, diminishing land and variable climate can only be addressed in agriculture by improving both maximum crop yield potential and resilience. Genetic modification is one potential solution, but has yet to achieve worldwide acceptance, particularly for crops such as wheat. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), a central sugar signal in plants, regulates sucrose use and allocation, underpinning crop growth and development. Here we show that application of a chemical intervention strategy directly modulates T6P levels in planta. Plant-permeable analogues of T6P were designed and constructed based on a ‘signalling-precursor’ concept for permeability, ready uptake and sunlight-triggered release of T6P in planta. We show that chemical intervention in a potent sugar signal increases grain yield, whereas application to vegetative tissue improves recovery and resurrection from drought. This technology offers a means to combine increases in yield with crop stress resilience. Given the generality of the T6P pathway in plants and other small-molecule signals in biology, these studies suggest that suitable synthetic exogenous small-molecule signal precursors can be used to directly enhance plant performance and perhaps other organism function

    Burmese pythons in Florida: A synthesis of biology, impacts, and management tools

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    Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus) are native to southeastern Asia, however, there is an established invasive population inhabiting much of southern Florida throughout the Greater Everglades Ecosystem. Pythons have severely impacted native species and ecosystems in Florida and represent one of the most intractable invasive-species management issues across the globe. The difficulty stems from a unique combination of inaccessible habitat and the cryptic and resilient nature of pythons that thrive in the subtropical environment of southern Florida, rendering them extremely challenging to detect. Here we provide a comprehensive review and synthesis of the science relevant to managing invasive Burmese pythons. We describe existing control tools and review challenges to productive research, identifying key knowledge gaps that would improve future research and decision making for python control. (119 pp

    Genome-wide association of familial prostate cancer cases identifies evidence for a rare segregating haplotype at 8q24.21

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    Previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of prostate cancer risk focused on cases unselected for family history and have reported over 100 significant associations. The International Consortium for Prostate Cancer Genetics (ICPCG) has now performed a GWAS of 2511 (unrelated) familial prostate cancer cases and 1382 unaffected controls from 12 member sites. All samples were genotyped on the Illumina 5M+exome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) platform. The GWAS identified a significant evidence for association for SNPs in six regions previously associated with prostate cancer in population-based cohorts, including 3q26.2, 6q25.3, 8q24.21, 10q11.23, 11q13.3, and 17q12. Of note, SNP rs138042437 (p = 1.7e−8) at 8q24.21 achieved a large estimated effect size in this cohort (odds ratio = 13.3). 116 previously sampled affected relatives of 62 risk-allele carriers from the GWAS cohort were genotyped for this SNP, identifying 78 additional affected carriers in 62 pedigrees. A test for an excess number of affected carriers among relatives exhibited strong evidence for co-segregation of the variant with disease (p = 8.5e−11). The majority (92 %) of risk-allele carriers at rs138042437 had a consistent estimated haplotype spanning approximately 100 kb of 8q24.21 that contained the minor alleles of three rare SNPs (dosage minor allele frequencies <1.7 %), rs183373024 (PRNCR1), previously associated SNP rs188140481, and rs138042437 (CASC19). Strong evidence for co-segregation of a SNP on the haplotype further characterizes the haplotype as a prostate cancer pre-disposition locus
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