110 research outputs found

    Optimal transient growth in an incompressible flow past a backward-slanted step

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    With the aim of providing a first step in the quest for a reduction of the aerodynamic drag on the rear-end of a car, we study the phenomena of separation and reattachment of an incompressible flow focusing on a specific aerodynamic geometry, namely a backward-slanted step at 25 degrees of inclination. The ensuing recirculation bubble provides the basis for an analytical and numerical investigation of streamwise-streak generation, lift-up effect, and turbulent-wake and Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities. A linear stability analysis is performed, and an optimal control problem with a steady volumic forcing is tackled by means of variational formulation, adjoint method, penalization scheme and orthogonalization algorithm. Dealing with the transient growth of spanwise-periodic perturbations and inspired by the need of physically-realizable disturbances, we finally provide a procedure attaining a kinetic-energy maximal gain of the order of one million with respect to the power introduced by the external forcing.Comment: 17 figure

    Global modes in a confined impinging jet: application to heat transfer and control

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    We investigate the stability and control of a plane, laminar jet impinging on a flat plate in a channel, a geometry used to cool down a hot wall with a cold air jet in many industrial configurations. The global stability analysis indicates that, even for a strong confinement, the two-dimensional (2-D) steady flow is unstable to three-dimensional (3-D), steady perturbations. In the simplest limit case where dilatation effects are neglected, we show that the development of the instability induces a significant spanwise modulation of the heat flux at the impacted wall. To control the leading global mode, we propose adjoint-based 3-D harmonic and 2-D steady forcing in the bulk or at the wall. We show for instance that the unstable mode is controllable using a spanwise uniform blowing at the upper wall, in a specific domain corresponding to the footprint of the upper recirculating bubble. These techniques are applied to a novel open-loop control, in which we introduce into the flow a small airfoil, modelled by the lift force it exerts on the flo

    An asymptotic expansion for the vortex-induced vibrations of a circular cylinder

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    International audienceThis paper investigates the vortex-induced vibrations (VIV) of a spring-mounted circular cylinder. We compute analytically the leading-order equations describing the nonlinear interaction of the fluid and structure modes by carrying out an asymptotic analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations close to the threshold of instability of the fluid-only system. We show that vortex-shedding can occur at subcritical Reynolds numbers as a result of the coupled system being linearly unstable to the structure mode. We also show that resonance occurs when the frequency of the nonlinear limit cycle matches the natural frequency of the cylinder, the displacement being then in phase with the flow-induced lift fluctuations. Using an extension of this model meant to encompass the effect of the low-order added-mass and damping forces induced by the displaced fluid, we show that the amount of energy that can be extracted from the flow can be optimized by an appropriate choice of the structural parameters. Finally, we suggest a possible connection between the present exact model and the empirical wake oscillator model used to study VIV at high Reynolds numbers. We show that for the low Reynolds numbers considered here, the effect of the structure on the fluid can be represented by a first coupling term proportional to the cylinder acceleration in the fluid equation, and by a second term of lower magnitude, which can stem either from an integral term or from a term proportional to the third derivative of the cylinder position. © 2011 Cambridge University Press

    Sensitivity of 2-D turbulent flow past a D-shaped cylinder using global stability

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    International audienceWe use adjoint-based gradients to analyze the sensitivity of turbulent wake past a D-shaped cylinder at Re = 13000. We assess the ability of a much smaller control cylinder in altering the shedding frequency, as predicted by the eigenfrequency of the most unstable global mode to the mean flow. This allows performing beforehand identification of the sensitive regions, i.e., without computing the actually controlled states. Our results obtained in the frame of 2-D, unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes compare favorably with experimental data reported by Parezanović and Cadot [J. Fluid Mech.693, 115 (2012)] and suggest that the control cylinder acts primarily through a local modification of the mean flow profiles

    A review on deep reinforcement learning for fluid mechanics: an update

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    In the past couple of years, the interest of the fluid mechanics community for deep reinforcement learning (DRL) techniques has increased at fast pace, leading to a growing bibliography on the topic. While the capabilities of DRL to solve complex decision-making problems make it a valuable tool for active flow control, recent publications also demonstrated applications to other fields, such as shape optimization or microfluidics. The present work aims at proposing an exhaustive review of the existing literature, and is a follow-up to our previous review on the topic. The contributions are regrouped by field of application, and are compared together regarding algorithmic and technical choices, such as state selection, reward design, time granularity, and more. Based on these comparisons, general conclusions are drawn regarding the current state-of-the-art in the domain, and perspectives for future improvements are sketched

    Effect of compressibility on the global stability of axisymmetric wake flows

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    International audienceWe study the linear dynamics of global eigenmodes in compressible axisymmetric wake flows, up to the high subsonic regime. We consider both an afterbody flow at zero angle of attack and a sphere, and find that the sequence of bifurcations destabilizing the axisymmetric steady flow is independent of the Mach number and reminiscent of that documented in the incompressible wake past a sphere and a disk (Natarajan & Acrivos, J. Fluid Mech., vol. 254, 1993, p. 323), hence suggesting that the onset of unsteadiness in this class of flows results from a global instability. We determine the boundary separating the stable and unstable domains in the (M, Re) plane, and show that an increase in the Mach number yields a stabilization of the afterbody flow, but a destabilization of the sphere flow. These compressible effects are further investigated by means of adjoint-based sensitivity analyses relying on the computation of gradients or sensitivity functions. Using this theoretical formalism, we show that they do not act through specific compressibility effects at the disturbance level but mainly through implicit base flow modifications, an effect that had not been taken into consideration by previous studies based on prescribed parallel base flow profiles. We propose a physical interpretation for the observed compressible effects, based on the competition between advection and production of disturbances, and provide evidence linking the stabilizing/destabilizing effect observed when varying the Mach number to a strengthening/weakening of the disturbance advection mechanism. We show, in particular, that the destabilizing effect of compressibility observed in the case of the sphere results from a significant increase of the backflow velocity in the whole recirculating bubble, which opposes the downstream advection of disturbances. © 2010 Cambridge University Press

    Contrôle en boucle ouverte d'un écoulement compressible d'arrière-corps par méthode adjointe [Open-loop control of compressible afterbody flows using adjoint methods]

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    International audienceNous présentons l'étude théorique d'un écoulement de culot franc en régime subsonique. Le formalisme utilisé repose sur une analyse de sensibilité développée dans le cadre de la théorie de la stabilité globale, et permet de mesurer l'effet d'un forçage stationnaire, volumique ou pariétal, sur le taux d'amplification des modes globaux linéaires. Cette étude constitue un premier pas dans la perspective d'un contrôle réaliste des instationnarités des écoulements d'arrière-corps. Les fonctions de sensibilité sont dérivées analytiquement par méthode adjointe et calculées pour le mode global responsable de l'apparition des instationnarités. Nous considérons plusieurs méthodes de contrôle, parmi lesquelles l'ajout d'un corps secondaire dans le sillage du corps principal, un chauffage local ou un soufflage à la paroi. Les résultats obtenus montrent que ce mode est sensible à un forçage en quantité de mouvement le long de la ligne de séparation, à un chauffage dans la bulle de recirculation et à une injection dans le voisinage du point de décollement

    A weakly nonlinear mechanism for mode selection in swirling jets

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    International audienceGlobal linear and nonlinear bifurcation analysis is used to revisit the spiral vortex breakdown of nominally axisymmetric swirling jets. For the parameters considered herein, stability analyses single out two unstable linear modes of azimuthal wavenumber m=1 and m=2, bifurcating from the axisymmetric breakdown solution. These modes are interpreted in terms of spiral perturbations wrapped around and behind the axisymmetric bubble, rotating in time in the same direction as the swirling flow but winding in space in the opposite direction. Issues are addressed regarding the role of these modes with respect to the existence, mode selection and internal structure of vortex breakdown, as assessed from the three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of Ruith et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 486, 2003, pp. 331-378). The normal form describing the leading-order nonlinear interaction between modes is computed and analysed. It admits two stable solutions corresponding to pure single and double helices. At large swirl, the axisymmetric solution bifurcates to the double helix which remains the only stable solution. At low and moderate swirl, it bifurcates first to the single helix, and subsequently to the double helix through a series of subcritical bifurcations yielding hysteresis over a finite range of Reynolds numbers, the estimated bifurcation threshold being in good agreement with that observed in the direct numerical simulations. Evidence is provided that this selection is not to be ascribed to classical mean flow corrections induced by the existence of the unstable modes, but to a non-trivial competition between harmonics. Because the frequencies of the leading modes approach a strong 2:1 resonance, an alternative normal form allowing interactions between the m=2 mode and the first harmonics of the m=1 mode is computed and analysed. It admits two stable solutions, the double helix already identified in the non-resonant case, and a single helix differing from that observed in the non-resonant case only by the presence of a slaved, phase-locked harmonic deformation. On behalf of the finite departure from the 2:1 resonance, the amplitude of the slaved harmonic is however low, and the effect of the resonance on the bifurcation structure is merely limited to a reduction of the hysteresis range

    Elephant modes and low frequency unsteadiness in a high Reynolds number, transonic afterbody wake

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    International audienceExperiments and large eddy numerical simulation of a fully turbulent afterbody flow in the high subsonic regime, typical of that developing in the wake of a space launcher, exhibit a large-scale low frequency oscillation of the wake. In the present paper, we investigate to what extent the existence of the synchronized oscillations can be interpreted, at the high Reynolds numbers prevailing in this class of flows, by a local stability analysis of the mean flow, as measured in experiments or computed in numerical simulations. This analysis shows the presence of a pocket of absolute instability in the near wake, slightly detached from the body. The global frequency is strikingly well predicted by the absolute frequency at the upstream station of marginal absolute instability, this frequency selection being in agreement with the theory of nonlinear global modes. This result strongly suggests that a so-called elephant mode is responsible for the intense oscillations observed in the lee of space launcher configurations. © 2009 American Institute of Physics

    A weakly nonlinear mechanism for mode selection in swirling jets

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    Global linear and nonlinear bifurcation analysis is used to revisit the spiral vortex breakdown of nominally axisymmetric swirling jets. For the parameters considered herein, stability analyses single out two unstable linear modes of azimuthal wavenumber m= \ensuremath{-} 1 and m= \ensuremath{-} 2, bifurcating from the axisymmetric breakdown solution. These modes are interpreted in terms of spiral perturbations wrapped around and behind the axisymmetric bubble, rotating in time in the same direction as the swirling flow but winding in space in the opposite direction. Issues are addressed regarding the role of these modes with respect to the existence, mode selection and internal structure of vortex breakdown, as assessed from the three-dimensional direct numerical simulations of Ruith etal.(J. Fluid Mech., vol. 486, 2003, pp. 331-378). The normal form describing the leading-order nonlinear interaction between modes is computed and analysed. It admits two stable solutions corresponding to pure single and double helices. At large swirl, the axisymmetric solution bifurcates to the double helix which remains the only stable solution. At low and moderate swirl, it bifurcates first to the single helix, and subsequently to the double helix through a series of subcritical bifurcations yielding hysteresis over a finite range of Reynolds numbers, the estimated bifurcation threshold being in good agreement with that observed in the direct numerical simulations. Evidence is provided that this selection is not to be ascribed to classical mean flow corrections induced by the existence of the unstable modes, but to a non-trivial competition between harmonics. Because the frequencies of the leading modes approach a strong 22:11 resonance, an alternative normal form allowing interactions between the m= \ensuremath{-} 2 mode and the first harmonics of the m= \ensuremath{-} 1 mode is computed and analysed. It admits two stable solutions, the double helix already identified in the non-resonant case, and a single helix differing from that observed in the non-resonant case only by the presence of a slaved, phase-locked harmonic deformation. On behalf of the finite departure from the 22:11 resonance, the amplitude of the slaved harmonic is however low, and the effect of the resonance on the bifurcation structure is merely limited to a reduction of the hysteresis rang
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