83 research outputs found

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator correction attenuates heart failure-induced lung inflammation

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    Heart failure (HF) affects 64 million people worldwide. Despite advancements in prevention and therapy, quality of life remains poor for many HF patients due to associated target organ damage. Pulmonary manifestations of HF are well-established. However, difficulties in the treatment of HF patients with chronic lung phenotypes remain as the underlying patho-mechanistic links are still incompletely understood. Here, we aim to investigate the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) involvement in lung inflammation during HF, a concept that may provide new mechanism-based therapies for HF patients with pulmonary complications. In a mouse model of HF, pharmacological CFTR corrector therapy (Lumacaftor (Lum)) was applied systemically or lung-specifically for 2 weeks, and the lungs were analyzed using histology, flow cytometry, western blotting, and qPCR. Experimental HF associated with an apparent lung phenotype characterized by vascular inflammation and remodeling, pronounced tissue inflammation as evidenced by infiltration of pro-inflammatory monocytes, and a reduction of pulmonary CFTR+ cells. Moreover, the elevation of a classically-activated phenotype of non-alveolar macrophages coincided with a cell-specific reduction of CFTR expression. Pharmacological correction of CFTR with Lum mitigated the HF-induced downregulation of pulmonary CFTR expression and increased the proportion of CFTR+ cells in the lung. Lum treatment diminished the HF-associated elevation of classically-activated non-alveolar macrophages, while promoting an alternatively-activated macrophage phenotype within the lungs. Collectively, our data suggest that downregulation of CFTR in the HF lung extends to non-alveolar macrophages with consequences for tissue inflammation and vascular structure. Pharmacological CFTR correction possesses the capacity to alleviate HF-associated lung inflammation

    Therapeutic CFTR correction normalizes systemic and lung-specific S1P level alterations associated with heart failure

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    Heart failure (HF) is among the main causes of death worldwide. Alterations of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signaling have been linked to HF as well as to target organ damage that is often associated with HF. S1P’s availability is controlled by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which acts as a critical bottleneck for intracellular S1P degradation. HF induces CFTR downregulation in cells, tissues and organs, including the lung. Whether CFTR alterations during HF also affect systemic and tissue-specific S1P concentrations has not been investigated. Here, we set out to study the relationship between S1P and CFTR expression in the HF lung. Mice with HF, induced by myocardial infarction, were treated with the CFTR corrector compound C18 starting ten weeks post-myocardial infarction for two consecutive weeks. CFTR expression, S1P concentrations, and immune cell frequencies were determined in vehicle- and C18-treated HF mice and sham controls using Western blotting, flow cytometry, mass spectrometry, and qPCR. HF led to decreased pulmonary CFTR expression, which was accompanied by elevated S1P concentrations and a pro-inflammatory state in the lungs. Systemically, HF associated with higher S1P plasma levels compared to sham-operated controls and presented with higher S1P receptor 1-positive immune cells in the spleen. CFTR correction with C18 attenuated the HF-associated alterations in pulmonary CFTR expression and, hence, led to lower pulmonary S1P levels, which was accompanied by reduced lung inflammation. Collectively, these data suggest an important role for the CFTR-S1P axis in HF-mediated systemic and pulmonary inflammation

    Simvastatin therapy attenuates memory deficits that associate with brain monocyte infiltration in chronic hypercholesterolemia

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    Abstract Evidence associates cardiovascular risk factors with unfavorable systemic and neuro-inflammation and cognitive decline in the elderly. Cardiovascular therapeutics (e.g., statins and anti-hypertensives) possess immune-modulatory functions in parallel to their cholesterol- or blood pressure (BP)-lowering properties. How their ability to modify immune responses affects cognitive function is unknown. Here, we examined the effect of chronic hypercholesterolemia on inflammation and memory function in Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) knockout mice and normocholesterolemic wild-type mice. Chronic hypercholesterolemia that was accompanied by moderate blood pressure elevations associated with apparent immune system activation characterized by increases in circulating pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes in ApoE-/- mice. The persistent low-grade immune activation that is associated with chronic hypercholesterolemia facilitates the infiltration of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes into the brain of aged ApoE-/- but not wild-type mice, and links to memory dysfunction. Therapeutic cholesterol-lowering through simvastatin reduced systemic and neuro-inflammation, and the occurrence of memory deficits in aged ApoE-/- mice with chronic hypercholesterolemia. BP-lowering therapy alone (i.e., hydralazine) attenuated some neuro-inflammatory signatures but not the occurrence of memory deficits. Our study suggests a link between chronic hypercholesterolemia, myeloid cell activation and neuro-inflammation with memory impairment and encourages cholesterol-lowering therapy as safe strategy to control hypercholesterolemia-associated memory decline during ageing

    Tumor necrosis factor‐α underlies loss of cortical dendritic spine density in a mouse model of congestive heart failure

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    BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is a progressive disorder characterized by reduced cardiac output and increased peripheral resistance, ultimately leading to tissue perfusion deficits and devastating consequences for several organs including the brain. We previously described a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-dependent enhancement of posterior cerebral artery tone and concomitant reduced cerebral blood flow in a mouse model of early HF in which blood pressure remains minimally affected. HF is often associated with cognitive impairments such as memory deficits, even before any overt changes in brain structure and function occur. The pathophysiology underlying the development of cognitive impairments in HF is unknown, and appropriate treatment strategies are lacking.METHODS AND RESULTS: We used a well-established mouse model in which HF was induced by experimental myocardial infarction produced by permanent surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (infarct size ≈25% of the left ventricular wall). Ligated mice developed enlarged hearts, congested lungs, and reduced cardiac output and blood pressure, with elevated peripheral resistance within 6 to 8 weeks after ligation. In this study, we demonstrated the significance of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α during HF-mediated neuroinflammation and associated impaired hippocampus-independent nonspatial episodic memory function. Augmented cerebral TNF-α expression and microglial activation in HF mice, indicative of brain inflammation, were accompanied by morphological changes and significant reduction of cortical dendritic spines (61.39±8.61% for basal and 61.04±9.18% for apical spines [P<0.001]). The significance of TNF-α signaling during the observed HF-mediated neurodegenerative processes is supported by evidence showing that sequestration or genetic deletion of TNF-α ameliorates the observed reduction of cortical dendritic spines (33.51±7.63% for basal and 30.13±6.98% for apical spines in wild-type mice treated with etanercept; 17.09±6.81% for basal and 17.21±7.29% for apical spines in TNF-α(-/-)). Moreover, our data suggest that alterations in cerebral serum and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SgK1) expression and phosphorylation during HF may be TNF-α dependent and that an increase of SgK1 phosphorylation potentially plays a role in the HF-associated reduction of dendritic spine density.CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that TNF-α plays a pivotal role in HF-mediated neuroinflammation and associated alterations of cortical dendritic spine density and has the potential to reveal novel treatment strategies for HF-associated memory deficits