27 research outputs found

    Influence of Olive Cultivar on Oil Attributes in the Arid Region of Qom, Iran

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    Olive cultivation has economic and health implications. The quality of harvested oil is affected by the type of cultivar and the climate in which the trees are cultivated. This study was carried out to determine quality indices (peroxide value, K232, and K270), fatty acid composition, and pigment profiles in some cultivars grown in an arid region in central Iran. These are cultivated in completely different climatic conditions than the major olive growing areas of Iran. The results have illustrated that there are significant differences between the cultivars in oil quality, pigments content, and fatty acid composition. Oil quality of all studied cultivars falls within the established ranges for extra virgin olive oil. Oleic acid levels of the ‘Beledy’ and ‘Leccino’ cultivars are below the International Olive Council (IOC) established limit. Oils of the ‘Mari’, ‘Koroneiki’, and ‘Mission’ cultivars had the highest monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) content. However, polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content for Mission oil was considerably higher than ‘Koroneiki’ and ‘Mari’ oils. The ratio of MUFA/PUFA for ‘Mari’ and ‘Koroneiki’ was higher among all the cultivars studied. Furthermore, these two cultivars presented higher oleic/linoleic acid ratio and lower Cox values. Based on our findings, ‘Mari’ and ‘Koroneiki’ are among the best performing cultivars for producing olive oil in intensely hot and arid regions

    Salinity stress endurance of the plants with the aid of bacterial genes

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    The application of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) is vital for sustainable agriculture with continuous world population growth and an increase in soil salinity. Salinity is one of the severe abiotic stresses which lessens the productivity of agricultural lands. Plant growth-promoting bacteria are key players in solving this problem and can mitigate salinity stress. The highest of reported halotolerant Plant growth-promoting bacteria belonged to Firmicutes (approximately 50%), Proteobacteria (40%), and Actinobacteria (10%), respectively. The most dominant genera of halotolerant plant growth-promoting bacteria are Bacillus and Pseudomonas. Currently, the identification of new plant growth-promoting bacteria with special beneficial properties is increasingly needed. Moreover, for the effective use of plant growth-promoting bacteria in agriculture, the unknown molecular aspects of their function and interaction with plants must be defined. Omics and meta-omics studies can unreveal these unknown genes and pathways. However, more accurate omics studies need a detailed understanding of so far known molecular mechanisms of plant stress protection by plant growth-promoting bacteria. In this review, the molecular basis of salinity stress mitigation by plant growth-promoting bacteria is presented, the identified genes in the genomes of 20 halotolerant plant growth-promoting bacteria are assessed, and the prevalence of their involved genes is highlighted. The genes related to the synthesis of indole acetic acid (IAA) (70%), siderophores (60%), osmoprotectants (80%), chaperons (40%), 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (50%), and antioxidants (50%), phosphate solubilization (60%), and ion homeostasis (80%) were the most common detected genes in the genomes of evaluated halotolerant plant growth-promoting and salinity stress-alleviating bacteria. The most prevalent genes can be applied as candidates for designing molecular markers for screening of new halotolerant plant growth-promoting bacteria

    Effects of antimicrobial activity of silver nanoparticles on in vitro establishment of G × N15 (hybrid of almond × peach) rootstock

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    In the present investigation were evaluated the antifungal and antibacterial activities of Nano-silver (NS). Two separate experiments were done to evaluate the potential of silver nanoparticles in controlling the contamination of G × N15 micro-propagation. In the first experiment, a factorial experiment based on a completely randomized design with 15 treatments including five different NS concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm) and three soaking time of explants (3, 5 and 7 min) with five replications was conducted. In the other experiment, NS was added to Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with concentrations of 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 ppm in a completely randomized design. Results showed that the application of 100 and 150 ppm NS both as an immersion and as added directly to the culture medium significantly reduces internal and external contaminations compared with the control group. Using NS in culture medium was more efficient to reduce fungal and bacterial contamination than immersion. High concentrations of NS had an adverse effect on the viability of G × N15 single nodes and this effect was more serious in immersed explants in NS than directly added NS ones regarding the viability of buds and plantlet regeneration. In conclusion, due to high contamination of woody plants especially fruit trees and also adverse environmental effects of mercury chloride, the NS solution can be used as a low risk bactericide in micro-propagation of G × N15 and can be an appropriate alternative to mercury chloride in the future

    Meta-analysis of transcriptome reveals key genes relating to oil quality in olive

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    Abstract Background Olive oil contains monounsaturated oleic acid up to 83% and phenolic compounds, making it an excellent source of fat. Due to its economic importance, the quantity and quality of olive oil should be improved in parallel with international standards. In this study, we analyzed the raw RNA-seq data with a meta-analysis approach to identify important genes and their metabolic pathways involved in olive oil quality. Results A deep search of RNA-seq published data shed light on thirty-nine experiments associated with the olive transcriptome, four of these proved to be ideal for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis confirmed the genes identified in previous studies and released new genes, which were not identified before. According to the IDR index, the meta-analysis had good power to identify new differentially expressed genes. The key genes were investigated in the metabolic pathways and were grouped into four classes based on the biosynthetic cycle of fatty acids and factors that affect oil quality. Galactose metabolism, glycolysis pathway, pyruvate metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, and terpenoid backbone biosynthesis were the main pathways in olive oil quality. In galactose metabolism, raffinose is a suitable source of carbon along with other available sources for carbon in fruit development. The results showed that the biosynthesis of acetyl-CoA in glycolysis and pyruvate metabolism is a stable pathway to begin the biosynthesis of fatty acids. Key genes in oleic acid production as an indicator of oil quality and critical genes that played an important role in production of triacylglycerols were identified in different developmental stages. In the minor compound, the terpenoid backbone biosynthesis was investigated and important enzymes were identified as an interconnected network that produces important precursors for the synthesis of a monoterpene, diterpene, triterpene, tetraterpene, and sesquiterpene biosynthesis. Conclusions The results of the current investigation can produce functional data related to the quality of olive oil and would be a useful step in reducing the time of cultivar screening by developing gene specific markers in olive breeding programs, releasing also new genes that could be applied in the genome editing approach

    Transcriptional Analysis of Stearoyl-Acyl Carrier Protein Desaturase Genes from Olive (Olea europaea) in Relation to the Oleic Acid Content of the Virgin Olive Oil

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    7 Figuras.-- 1 TablaThe specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Toward that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analyses indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil. This conclusion was confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo, and Manzanilla cultivars. Furthermore, our data indicate that the olive microsomal oleate desaturase gene OeFAD2-2, but not OeSAD2, is responsible for the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil.Research was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Grant AGL2014-55300-R). F.P. was the recipient of a Ph.D. fellowship from the National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (Iran), and M.L.H. was the recipient of a contract from the JAE-Postdoctoral CSIC program (Spain)

    Cold stress resilience of Iranian olive genetic resources: evidence from autochthonous genotypes diversity

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    Olive (Olea europaea L.) is one of the most cultivated tree species in Iran. This plant is characterized by its tolerance to drought, salt, and heat stresses while being vulnerable to frost. During the last decade, periods of frost have occurred several times in Golestan Province, in the northeast of Iran, which caused severe damage to olive groves. This study aimed to evaluate and individuate autochthonous Iranian olive varieties with regard to frost tolerance and good agronomic performance. For this purpose, 218 frost-tolerant olive trees were selected from 150,000 adult olive trees (15–25 years old), following the last harsh autumn of 2016. The selected trees were reassessed at different intervals, i.e., 1, 4, and 7 months after the cold stress in field conditions. Using 19 morpho-agronomic traits, 45 individual trees with relatively stable frost-tolerance were reevaluated and selected for this research. Ten highly discriminating microsatellite markers were used for the genetic profiling of the 45 selected olive trees, and, ultimately, five genotypes with the highest tolerance among 45 selected ones were placed in a cold room at freezing temperatures for image analyses of cold damage. The results of morpho-agronomic analyses evidenced no bark splitting or symptoms of leaf drop in the 45 cold-tolerant olives (CTOs). The oil content of the cold-tolerant trees comprised almost 40% of the fruit dry weight, highlighting the potential of these varieties for oil production. Moreover, through molecular characterization, 36 unique molecular profiles were individuated among the 45 analyzed CTOs that were genetically more similar to the Mediterranean olive cultivars than the Iranian ones. The present study demonstrated the high potential of local olive varieties, which would be promising and more suitable than commercial olive varieties, with regard to the establishment of olive groves under cold climate conditions. This could be a valuable genetic resource for future breeding activities to face climate changes

    Identification and gene expression analysis of AUX1 influencing adventitious root induction in olive cuttings (Olea europaea L.)

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    Olive is one of the most important fruit crops throughout the Mediterranean Basin, mainly propagated by cuttings. The adventitious root development is a key stage in vegetative propagation however the low rooting capacity of some cultivars severely affects the efficiency of olive clonal propagation. Auxin Influx Carrier gene (AUX1), plays a key role in lateral root formation in many plant species promoting the export of IAA from newly developing leaves to lateral root primordia. Putative olive homologues were amplified by using degenerate primers designed on the conserved regions of AUX1 transcripts identified in other plants. Transcript and amino acid sequences in root (OeAUX1R) and base of cutting (OeAUX1B) were different causes of polymorphisms relating to possible distinct roles in these tissues. In order to investigate the gene expression patterns, Real-time PCR was performed on cuttings during the rooting stage collected from genotypes characterized by high and low rooting ability. Moreover, the gene expression was investigated on different olive tissues. Preliminary results showed that the expression of OeAUX1B and OeAUX1R in base of cuttings and roots of the high-rooting genotype were higher which suggests the hypothesis of the involvement of OeAUX1 in olive rooting. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that AUX1 gene had 8 exons in olive and the sequence of this gene in plant was conserved during evolution

    Machine Learning Based Classification of Microsatellite Variation: An Effective Approach for Phylogeographic Characterization of Olive Populations.

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    Finding efficient analytical techniques is overwhelmingly turning into a bottleneck for the effectiveness of large biological data. Machine learning offers a novel and powerful tool to advance classification and modeling solutions in molecular biology. However, these methods have been less frequently used with empirical population genetics data. In this study, we developed a new combined approach of data analysis using microsatellite marker data from our previous studies of olive populations using machine learning algorithms. Herein, 267 olive accessions of various origins including 21 reference cultivars, 132 local ecotypes, and 37 wild olive specimens from the Iranian plateau, together with 77 of the most represented Mediterranean varieties were investigated using a finely selected panel of 11 microsatellite markers. We organized data in two '4-targeted' and '16-targeted' experiments. A strategy of assaying different machine based analyses (i.e. data cleaning, feature selection, and machine learning classification) was devised to identify the most informative loci and the most diagnostic alleles to represent the population and the geography of each olive accession. These analyses revealed microsatellite markers with the highest differentiating capacity and proved efficiency for our method of clustering olive accessions to reflect upon their regions of origin. A distinguished highlight of this study was the discovery of the best combination of markers for better differentiating of populations via machine learning models, which can be exploited to distinguish among other biological populations

    High genetic diversity detected in olives beyond the boundaries of the Mediterranean Sea.

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    BACKGROUND: Olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea var. europaea) naturally grow in areas spanning the Mediterranean basin and towards the East, including the Middle East. In the Iranian plateau, the presence of olives has been documented since very ancient times, though the early history of the crop in this area is shrouded in uncertainty. METHODS: The varieties presently cultivated in Iran and trees of an unknown cultivation status, surviving under extreme climate and soil conditions, were sampled from different provinces and compared with a set of Mediterranean cultivars. All samples were analyzed using SSR and chloroplast markers to establish the relationships between Iranian olives and Mediterranean varieties, to shed light on the origins of Iranian olives and to verify their contribution to the development of the current global olive variation. RESULTS: Iranian cultivars and ecotypes, when analyzed using SSR markers, clustered separately from Mediterranean cultivars and showed a high number of private alleles, on the contrary, they shared the same single chlorotype with the most widespread varieties cultivated in the Mediterranean. CONCLUSION: We hypothesized that Iranian and Mediterranean olive trees may have had a common origin from a unique center in the Near East region, possibly including the western Iranian area. The present pattern of variation may have derived from different environmental conditions, distinct levels and selection criteria, and divergent breeding opportunities found by Mediterranean and Iranian olives.These unexpected findings emphasize the importance of studying the Iranian olive germplasm as a promising but endangered source of variation

    Draft Genome Sequence of Cyclic Lipopeptide Producer Pseudomonas sp. Strain SWRI103, Isolated from Wheat Rhizosphere

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    The draft genome sequence of wheat rhizosphere isolate Pseudomonas sp. strain SWRI103 is reported. This strain carries several gene clusters encoding nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs), including a system for cyclic lipopeptide (CLP) production, and genes for carotenoid biosynthesis.status: publishe
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