387 research outputs found

    Teaching Construction in the Virtual University: the WINDS project

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    This paper introduces some of the Information Technology solutions adopted in Web based INtelligent Design Support (WINDS) to support education in A/E/C design. The WINDS project WINDS is an EC-funded project in the 5th Framework, Information Society Technologies programme, Flexible University key action. WINDS is divided into two actions: 路The research technology action is going to implement a learning environment integrating an intelligent tutoring system, a computer instruction management system and a set of co-operative supporting tools. 路The development action is going to build a large knowledge base supporting Architecture and Civil Engineering Design Courses and to experiment a comprehensive Virtual School of Architecture and Engineering Design. During the third year of the project, more than 400 students all over Europe will attend the Virtual School. During the next three years the WINDS project will span a total effort of about 150 man-years from 28 partners of 10 European countries. The missions of the WINDS project are: Advanced Methodologies in Design Education. WINDS drives a breakdown with conventional models in design education, i.e. classroom or distance education. WINDS implements a problem oriented knowledge transfer methodology following Roger Schank's Goal Based Scenario (GBS) pedagogical methodology. GBS encourages the learning of both skills and cases, and fosters creative problem solving. Multidisciplinary Design Education. Design requires creative synthesis and open-end problem definition at the intersection of several disciplines. WINDS experiments a valuable integration of multidisciplinary design knowledge and expertise to produce a high level standard of education. Innovative Representation, Delivery and Access to Construction Education. WINDS delivers individual education customisation by allowing the learner access through the Internet to a wide range of on-line courses and structured learning objects by means of personally tailored learning strategies. WINDS promotes the 3W paradigm: learn What you need, Where you want, When you require. Construction Practice. Construction industry is a repository of ""best practices"" and knowledge that the WINDS will profit. WINDS system benefits the ISO10303 and IFC standards to acquire knowledge of the construction process directly in digital format. On the other hand, WINDS reengineers the knowledge in up-to-date courses, educational services, which the industries can use to provide just-in-time rather than in-advance learning. WINDS IT Solutions The missions of the WINDS project state many challenging requirements both in knowledge and system architecture. Many of the solutions adopted in these fields are innovative; others are evolution of existing technologies. This paper focuses on the integration of this set of state-of-the-art technologies in an advanced and functionally sound Computer Aided Instruction system for A/E/C Design. In particular the paper deals with the following aspects: Standard Learning Technology Architecture The WINDS system relies on the in progress IEEE 1484.1 Learning Technology Standard Architecture. According to this standard the system consists of two data stores, the Knowledge Library and the Record Database, and four process: System Coach, Delivery, Evaluation and the Learner. WINDS implements the Knowledge Library into a three-tier architecture: 1.Learning Objects: 路Learning Units are collections of text and multimedia data. 路Models are represented in either IFC or STEP formats. 路Cases are sets of Learning Units and Models. Cases are noteworthy stories, which describes solutions, integrate technical detail, contain relevant design failures etc. 2.Indexes refer to the process in which the identification of relevant topics in design cases and learning units takes place. Indexing process creates structures of Learning Objects for course management, profile planning procedures and reasoning processes. 3.Courses are taxonomies of either Learning Units or a design task and Course Units. Knowledge Representation WINDS demonstrates that it is possible and valuable to integrate a widespread design expertise so that it can be effectively used to produce a high level standard of education. To this aim WINDS gathers area knowledge, design skills and expertise under the umbrellas of common knowledge representation structures and unambiguous semantics. Cases are one of the most valuable means for the representation of design expertise. A Case is a set of Learning Units and Product Models. Cases are noteworthy stories, which describe solutions, integrate technical details, contain relevant design failures, etc. Knowledge Integration Indexes are a medium among different kind of knowledge: they implement networks for navigation and access to disparate documents: HTML, video, images, CAD and product models (STEP or IFC). Concept indexes link learning topics to learning objects and group them into competencies. Index relationships are the base of the WINDS reasoning processes, and provide the foundation for system coaching functions, which proactively suggest strategies, solutions, examples and avoids students' design deadlock. Knowledge Distribution To support the data stores and the process among the partners in 10 countries efficiently, WINDS implements an object oriented client/server as COM objects. Behind the DCOM components there is the Dynamic Kernel, which dynamically embodies and maintains data stores and process. Components of the Knowledge Library can reside on several servers across the Internet. This provides for distributed transactions, e.g. a change in one Learning Object affects the Knowledge Library spread across several servers in different countries. Learning objects implemented as COM objects can wrap ownership data. Clear and univocal definition of ownerships rights enables Universities, in collaboration with telecommunication and publisher companies, to act as "education brokers". Brokerage in education and training is an innovative paradigm to provide just-in-time and personally customised value added learning knowledg

    Doen莽a de Chagas: Contribui莽玫es do Centro de Investiga莽玫es Toxicol贸gicas

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    La quimioterapia de la enfermedad de Chagas cuenta en la actualidad con el empleo de dos f谩rmacos solamente: Nifurtimox y Benznidazol. Nifurtimox es un nitrofurano y Benznidazol es un compuesto nitroimidaz贸lico. El uso de estas drogas para tratar la fase aguda de la enfermedad se acepta ampliamente. Sin embargo, su utilizaci贸n en el tratamiento de la fase cr贸nica no est谩 exenta de cuestionamientos serios. Los efectos colaterales de ambas son un inconveniente mayor en su uso, y frecuentemente fuerza a los m茅dicos a detener el tratamiento. Los estudios de toxicidad experimentales con Nifurtimox evidenciaron neurotoxicidad, da帽o testicular, toxicidad ov谩rica y efectos delet茅reos en coraz贸n, tejido mamario, adrenales, colon y es贸fago. Para el Benznidazol, se observaron efectos delet茅reos en adrenales, colon y es贸fago. Tambi茅n inhibe el metabolismo de varios xenobi贸ticos transformados por el sistema del citocromo P450 y sus metabolitos reaccionan con los componentes fetales in vivo. Ambas drogas exhibieron efectos mutag茅nicos significativos y se demostr贸 en algunos estudios que eran carcinog茅nicas o tumorig茅nicas. Los efectos t贸xicos de ambos f谩rmacos dependen de la reducci贸n enzim谩tica de su grupo nitro. En este trabajo se resume la actividad de este laboratorio en el esfuerzo por comprender los mecanismos de la acci贸n t贸xica de estos f谩rmacos.Chemotherapy of Chagas disease is currently performed by the use of only two drugs: Nifurtimox and Benznidazole. Nifurtimox is a nitrofurane and Benznidazole is a nitroimidazole compound. The use of these drugs to treat the acute phase of the disease is now widely accepted. However, their use in the treatment of the chronic phase is not without serious consequences. The side effects of both drugs are a major drawback in their use and often force physicians to stop treatment. In the case of Nifurtimox, experimental toxicity studies showed neurotoxicity, testicular damage, ovarian toxicity and deleterious effects in heart, breast tissue, adrenals, colon and esophagus. Benznidazole deleterious effects were observed in adrenals, colon and esophagus. It also inhibits the metabolism of various xenobiotics transformed by cytochrome P450 and its metabolites react with fetal components in vivo. Both drugs exhibited significant mutagenic effects and in some studies, they demonstrated to be carcinogenic or tumorigenic. Toxic effects of both drugs are dependent on the enzymatic reduction of the nitro group. This paper summarizes this laboratory鈥檚 activity in an effort to understand the mechanisms of these drugs鈥 toxic action.A quimioterapia da doen莽a de Chagas tem atualmente com o uso de apenas dois medicamentos: nifurtimox e benzonidazol. Nifurtimox 茅 um nitrofuran e benzonidazol 茅 um composto nitroimidaz贸lico. A utiliza莽茫o destes f谩rmacos para o tratamento da fase aguda da doen莽a 茅 agora amplamente aceite. No entanto, a sua utiliza莽茫o no tratamento da fase cr贸nica n茫o 茅 sem d煤vida graves. Os efeitos colaterais de ambas s茫o uma grande desvantagem na sua utiliza莽茫o, e frequentemente m茅dicos for莽a para interromper o tratamento. Estudos experimentais com Nifurtimox mostraram neurotoxicidade, les茫o testicular, toxicidade ovariana e efeitos delet茅rios no cora莽茫o, tecido mam谩rio, adrenal, c贸lon e es么fago. Para benzonidazole efeitos delet茅rios foram observadas em supra-renal, c贸lon e esof谩gica. Tamb茅m inibe o metabolismo de v谩rios xenobi贸ticos transformadas pelo citocromo P450 e seus metabolitos reagem com componentes fetal in vivo. Ambos os f谩rmacos apresentaram efeitos mutag锚nicos significativos demonstrado em alguns estudos que eram cancer铆genas ou tumorigenic. Os efeitos t贸xicos de ambas as drogas s茫o dependentes da redu莽茫o enzim谩tica do grupo nitro. Neste trabalho a atividade do nosso laborat贸rio no esfor莽o para compreender os mecanismos de a莽茫o t贸xica dessas drogas 茅 resumidaFil: Castro, Jose Alberto. Ministerio de Defensa. Instituto de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas para la Defensa; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de San Mart铆n. Instituto de Investigaci贸n e Ingenier铆a Ambiental; ArgentinaFil: Montalto de Mecca, Mar铆a. Ministerio de Defensa. Instituto de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas para la Defensa; Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; ArgentinaFil: Diaz Gomez, Maria Isabel. Ministerio de Defensa. Instituto de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas para la Defensa; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de San Mart铆n. Instituto de Investigaci贸n e Ingenier铆a Ambiental; ArgentinaFil: Castro, Gerardo Daniel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Unidad de Investigaci贸n y Desarrollo Estrat茅gicos Para la Defensa; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de San Mart铆n. Instituto de Investigaci贸n e Ingenier铆a Ambiental; Argentin

    A sensitivity study of triboson production processes to dimension-6 EFT operators at the LHC

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    We present the first parton-level study of anomalous effects in triboson production in both fully and semi-leptonic channels in proton-proton collisions at 13 TeV at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The sensitivity to anomalies induced by a minimal set of bosonic dimension-6 operators from the Warsaw basis is evaluated with specific analyses for each final state. A likelihood-based strategy is employed to assess the most sensitive kinematic observables per channel, where the contribution of Effective Field Theory operators is parameterized at either the linear or quadratic level. The impact of the mutual interference terms of pairs of operators on the sensitivity is also examined. This benchmark study explores the complementarity and overlap in sensitivity between different triboson measurements and paves the way for future analyses at the LHC experiments. The statistical combination of the considered final states allows setting stringent bounds on five bosonic Wilson coefficients

    Enfermedad de Chagas: Contribuciones del Centro de Investigaciones Toxicol贸gicas

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    La quimioterapia de la enfermedad de Chagas cuenta en la actualidad con el empleo de dos f谩rmacos solamente: Nifurtimox y Benznidazol. Nifurtimox es un nitrofurano y Benznidazol es un compuesto nitroimidaz贸lico. El uso de estas drogas para tratar la fase aguda de la enfermedad se acepta ampliamente. Sin embargo, su utilizaci贸n en el tratamiento de la fase cr贸nica no est谩 exenta de cuestionamientos serios. Los efectos colaterales de ambas son un inconveniente mayor en su uso, y frecuentemente fuerza a los m茅dicos a detener el tratamiento. Los estudios de toxicidad experimentales con Nifurtimox evidenciaron neurotoxicidad, da帽o testicular, toxicidad ov谩rica y efectos delet茅reos en coraz贸n, tejido mamario, adrenales, colon y es贸fago. Para el Benznidazol, se observaron efectos delet茅reos en adrenales, colon y es贸fago. Tambi茅n inhibe el metabolismo de varios xenobi贸ticos transformados por el sistema del citocromo P450 y sus metabolitos reaccionan con los componentes fetales in vivo. Ambas drogas exhibieron efectos mutag茅nicos significativos y se demostr贸 en algunos estudios que eran carcinog茅nicas o tumorig茅nicas. Los efectos t贸xicos de ambos f谩rmacos dependen de la reducci贸n enzim谩tica de su grupo nitro. En este trabajo se resume la actividad de este laboratorio en el esfuerzo por comprender los mecanismos de la acci贸n t贸xica de estos f谩rmacos.Fil: Montalto de Mecca, Mar铆a. Ministerio de Defensa. Instituto de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas para la Defensa; Argentina. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales; ArgentinaFil: Diaz Gomez, Maria Isabel. Ministerio de Defensa. Instituto de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas para la Defensa; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de San Mart铆n. Instituto de Investigaci贸n e Ingenier铆a Ambiental; ArgentinaFil: Castro, Gerardo Daniel. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas. Unidad de Investigaci贸n y Desarrollo Estrat茅gicos Para la Defensa; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de San Mart铆n. Instituto de Investigaci贸n e Ingenier铆a Ambiental; ArgentinaFil: Castro, Jose Alberto. Ministerio de Defensa. Instituto de Investigaciones Cient铆ficas y T茅cnicas para la Defensa; Argentina. Universidad Nacional de San Mart铆n. Instituto de Investigaci贸n e Ingenier铆a Ambiental; Argentin

    Efficient Queries over Web Views

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    Large web sites are becoming repositories of structured information that can benefit from being viewed and queried as relational databases. However, querying these views efficiently requires new techniques. Data usually resides at a remote site and is organized as a set of related HTML documents, with network access being a primary cost factor in query evaluation. This cost can be reduced by exploiting the redundancy often found in site design. We use a simple data model, a subset of the Araneus data model, to describe the structure of a web site. We augment the model with link and inclusion constraints that capture the redundancies in the site. We map relational views of a site to a navigational algebra and show how to use the constraints to rewrite algebraic expressions, reducing the number of network accesses. We show that similar techniques can be used to maintain materialized views over sets of HTML pages

    Ochratoxin A adsorption phenotype: an inheritable yeast trait

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    21st International ICFMH Symposium 鈥淓volving Microbial Food Quality and Safety鈥 Aberdeen 1st 鈥 4th Septembe

    The University of the future

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    The post-pandemic world needs creative thinkers in all disciplines, mainly in project planning and design; people able to face complex challenges and develop innovative solutions. The post-pandemic world will be increasingly characterised by proximity: from a measurable spatial sense to a physical and imma- terial relational one, qualities required for a social and territorial organisation, individual and community rights which are created not only through physical proximity, but increasingly strengthened and integrated by flows of data, information and knowledge. Big Data, the semantic web, digital twinning and multidimensional models, micro- and macro- simulations and systems for the col- lection, management and interpretation of data, information and knowledge not only point towards new modalities of scientific and professional work for creative design, but they can also open a sce- nario for universities of new educational ecosystems. In this sense, given the responsibility of universities in the process of training the designers, professionals and researchers of tomor- row, it is necessary to ask ourselves what new educational and knowledge environments are already available today where teachers, researchers, experts and students will be able to perform their activities, an environment in which students can have the opportunity to experience the university as an open system rich in relationships, full of experience and charged with knowledge. For the area of artistic and design creativity, this goal is also a chal- lenge to build a structured educational and training environment of its own. It is a common belief that creative people have a natural gift, but research and experience have shown that creativity is a skill that can be taught, practised and developed. We as teachers/re- searchers of architecture, design and urban planning have always placed at the centre of education the processes of transmission of knowledge, skills and abilities characterised by the master/ap- prentice relationship inherited from the tradition of the Academy of Fine Arts, of which we were part, and from the long tradition of learning through doing, typical of architects until the end of the nineteenth century, which we have combined with the most recent engineering and scientific traditions.In our design courses students are encouraged to develop multiple ideas, to demand verification and criticism, to create an approxi- mate prototype, to discuss it with other students, to analyze it and defend it against criticism, test it and perfect it through a series of iterative explorations, a recursive process of 鈥渢rial and error鈥, until reaching a solution that is considered, provisionally, satisfactory, 鈥渟atisficing鈥 as Herbert Simon would have it. In short, if we want to work towards offering students a creative environment, an innovation-oriented ecosystem to support univer- sity students and alumni in their search to explore, imagine and plan the future of the world, if we want to stimulate and enhance the innovative power of individuals, of young architects, designers, landscape architects and urban planners, we need to imagine, de- sign and build a new physical, digital, scientific/experimental and emotional ecosystem, cooperative and competitive, full of experien- ces and stimuli, supported by social norms, spaces and services, tools and platforms, teachers, experts and tutors that galvanise and animate the most intense collaboration and interaction between peers. We believe that higher education for creativity and design, and beyond, needs both a culture and a methodology oriented towards knowledge and design skills, and also an open environment in whi- ch connection and collaboration, sharing different visions, knowle- dge and skills are the fundamental traits. The current experience, of apparent distance, has shown us that it is possible to bring peo- ple closer together through digital tools, with which, by integrating face-to-face tools with those of distance education, we can better build and manage the university as a fluid community able to bring together the right mix of diversity of people, knowledge, cultures, with shared intentions and similar values, so that we will be able to train creative, innovative and effective designers necessary for future societies. Professional competition will reside in the ability to innovate, on creativity based on rigorous methods, on 鈥渞eflective and responsi- ble creativity鈥, on the ability to operate on both the material and digital dimensions of design and production processes. We must work to create an environment of open learning, a creative envi- ronment capable of helping students to acquire ways of thinking, the cognitive strategies and the skills needed to face ambiguous issues, understand multiple points of view, collaborate between di- sciplines, and imagine and create new solutions. A cognitive environment capable of nurturing connections, of bringing together students of different backgrounds, of different cultures around design problems of different scales and different domains; a blended research, training and operational environ- ment of experimentation, capable of nourishing itself and enhan- cing all useful tools, from direct master/apprentice interaction to all digital tools, to distance learning platforms, to the semantic web, to procreative and cooperative design and augmented reality

    Cell population data and reflex testing rules of cell analysis in pleural and ascitic fluids using body fluid mode on sysmex XN-9000

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    BACKGROUND: Although optical microscopy (OM) remains the reference technique for analysis of ascitic (AF) and pleural (PF) fluids, novel hematological analyzers are equipped with modules for body fluids (BFs) analysis. This study was aimed to analyze the performance of XN-BF module in Sysmex XN-9000, and to develop validation rules for automated cell counts in BFs.METHODS: The evaluation of XN-BF module included assessment of carryover, Limit of Blank (LoB), Limit of Detection (LoD), Limit of Quantitation (LoQ), linearity, data comparison with OM, and development of rules for assisting the validation of automated analysis of BFs and activating reflex testing.RESULTS: The carryover was negligible. The LoB, LoD, LoQ and linearity were always excellent. The comparison with OM was characterized by Pearson's correlations ranging from r=0.50 to r=0.99 (p<0.001), modest bias and high diagnostic concordance (Area Under the Curve between 0.85-0.99). The use of instrument-specific cut-offs further increased diagnostic concordance. The implementation of reflex testing rules based on XN-BF data increased sensitivity and specificity of BFs classification to 0.98 and 0.95.CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that the XN-BF module on Sysmex-9000 may be a suitable alternative to OM for screening BF samples, especially when specific validation rules are used
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