27 research outputs found

    Secreting Germ Cell Tumors of the Central Nervous System: A Long-Term Follow-up Experience

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    Simple Summary Nongerminomatous germ cell tumors of the central nervous system are rare tumours. Differently from germinomas, they have a severe prognosis above all when presenting with high alfafetoprotein levels. We report the results of a combined chemo- and radiotherapy approach in 28 patients affected by this disease with craniospinal irradiation and a boost tailored on the response to pre-radiant chemotherapy. Metastatic patients and high-risk disease are discussed as well. The 5 years overall survival and event-free survival were both 81% while at 10 years they were 81% and 76% respectively. Our series, even if small, concerns nongerminomatous germ cell tumors only (whereas in some papers they are mixed with pure germinomas), furthermore our patients had a very long follow-up (over 11 years) with encouraging survival data for localized and metastatic disease. Improving survival while trying to contain/avoid the long-term sequelae of chemotherapy and radiotherapy are the main goals of future studies. Introduction: Due to the rarity of nongerminomatous germ cell tumors (NGGCT) with non-standard treatment as yet, we report retrospectively our 30 year experience with chemotherapy followed by craniospinal irradiation (CSI), plus a boost of whole ventricular irradiation (WVI)/tumor bed (TB), tailored to pre-radiation chemotherapy response. Methods: Between 1988 and 2016, 28 patients received four cycles of PEB (cisplatin/etoposide/bleomycin), then CSI, and two further PEB cycles. Between 1988 and1994, CSI was 25.5 Gy for patients in complete remission (CR), 30 Gy if in partial remission (PR) or metastatic, with a boost to TB up to 45-54 Gy. In the period of 1995-2010, the boost included WVI and any extra-ventricular tumor sites up to 45 Gy. After 2010, CSI was reduced to 25.5 Gy for all non-metastatic patients, and a boost was given only to TB up to 40.5/45.5 Gy, depending on patients' CR/PR status. After 2003, patients with alfafetoprotein (alpha FP) > 1000 ng/mL received intensified treatment, also including autologous stem cell transplantation. Results: Among 28 patients (23 males; median age 12 years, 6 metastatic), 25 responded to PEB, and three progressed (PD) after one to four cycles; 26 received radiotherapy obtaining 13 CR, 7 PR and 5 stable disease (SD), 1 PD; 6 (21%) died (5 for disease, 1 for pneumonia while in CR). Five-year overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were both 81%; 10 year OS and PFS 81% and 76%, respectively (median follow-up 11 years). Conclusions: Survival for children with NGGCT, independently from disease extent, was encouraging. Further studies should elucidate which patients could benefit from reduced volume and dose irradiation

    Repeated nucleotide sequences in human main band DNA.

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    Male and female human placenta DNA was fractionated in an Ag+-Cs2SO4 density gradient. The different fractions along the gradient were analyzed by Hae III endonuclease digestion. Within the main band DNA on the light side a component having a Hae III digestion pattern similar to that of human satellite III DNA has been identified. This component which might be defined as a cryptic satellite accounts for at least 3% of the total human DNA and has a different position than human satellite III in Ag+-Cs2SO4

    Hereditary multiple exostoses and solitary osteochondroma associated with growth hormone deficiency: To treat or not to treat?

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    BACKGROUND: Osteochondroma generally occurs as a single lesion and it is not a heritable disease. When two or more osteochondroma are present, this condition represents a genetic disorder named hereditary multiple exostoses (HME). Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) has rarely been found in HME patients and a few data about growth therapy (GH) therapy effects in development/growth of solitary or multiple exostoses have been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the clinical features of 2 patients (one with osteochondroma and one with HME) evaluated before and after GH therapy. In the first patient, the single osteochondroma was noticed after the start of treatment; the other patient showed no evidence of significant increase in size or number of lesions related to GH therapy. CONCLUSION: It is necessary to investigate GH secretion in patients with osteochondroma or HME and short stature because they could benefit from GH replacement therapy. Moreover, careful clinical and imaging follow-up of exostoses is mandatory

    Salvage rates and prognostic factors after relapse in children and adolescents with initially localised synovial sarcoma

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    Background: Previous studies have reported a poor outcome for synovial sarcoma patients whose tumours relapse. Methods: This study analysed 44 relapsing cases in a series of 118 consecutive patients <21 yr of age with non-metastatic synovial sarcoma prospectively enrolled in Italian paediatric protocols between 1979 and 2006. In an effort to identify a possible risk-adapted stratification enabling a better planning of second-line treatment, the relapsing patients' outcome was analysed vis-a-vis their clinical picture at onset, first-line treatments, clinical findings at the time of first relapse and second-line treatment modalities. Results: The first event was a local recurrence in only 15 cases, and metastatic in 29 (associated with local relapse too in 7 cases). The time to relapse ranged from 4 to 108 months (median 20 months). Overall survival was 29.7% and 21.0% five and ten years after relapsing, respectively.The variables influencing survival were the timing and type of relapse (combined) and the chances of a secondary remission, which correlated strongly with the feasibility of complete surgery. Conclusions: Our study confirmed a largely unsatisfactory prognosis after recurrences in children and adolescents with synovial sarcoma: the chances of survival can be estimated on the basis of several variables for the purposes of planning risk-adapted salvage protocols. An aggressive surgical approach should be recommended. New effective systemic agents are warranted, and experimental therapies can be offered to patients with little chance of salvage. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

    Acute Kidney Injury with SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Pediatric Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate Chemotherapy: A Report of Three Cases

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    Background. Methotrexate is renally excreted. HDMTX (high dose-methotrexate)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a non-oliguric decrease in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) heralded by an acute rise in serum creatinine. Moreover, AKI is also a frequent complication of COVID-19. Among our patients treated with HDMTX, some of these developed AKI during SARS-CoV-2 infection. Therefore, we wondered whether our patients’ kidney failure might have been triggered by their underlying SARS-CoV-2 positivity. Methods. Data were collected from the database at the Pediatric Oncology Unit of the Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori in Milan (Italy) regarding patients who matched the following selective criteria: (a) treatment with HDMTX during the pandemic period; (b) SARS-CoV-2 infection during the treatment; (c) development of AKI during HDMTX treatment and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Results. From March 2020 to March 2022, a total of 23 patients were treated with HDMTX; 3 patients were treated with HDMTX during SARS-CoV-2 infection and all 3 developed AKI. Conclusions. Clinical manifestations associated with this virus are many, so we are not yet able to lower our guard and rule out this infection as a cause of clinical manifestations with any certainty

    The challenge of access to care for soft tissue sarcomas bridging pediatric and adult age: the Italian pediatric oncology view

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    Abstract Synovial sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma are two high-grade soft tissue sarcoma subtypes that occur in adolescents and young adults. Managing these malignancies in patients in this age bracket poses various clinical problems, partly because different therapeutic approaches are sometimes adopted by pediatric and adult oncologists, even though they are dealing with the same condition. In this review, the doubts concerning how best to manage soft tissue sarcomas in patients between pediatric and adult ages lead up to a more general discussion of the issue of access to optimal cancer services for adolescents and young adults a subset of patients acknowledged as being under-represented in clinical trials on therapies that may improve their outcome. The situation in Italy is described, along with action taken in an effort to bridge the gap and implement specific programs tailored to these patients

    Vinorelbine and low-dose cyclophosphamide in the treatment of pediatric sarcomas

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    Abstract BACKGROUND. Following their previous report on the activity of vinorelbine in the treatment of rhabdomyosarcoma, the authors report the results of a pilot study aimed at defining the optimal dose of vinorelbine when this agent is used in conjunction with continuous, orally administered low-dose cyclophosphamide to treat patients with refractory or recurrent sarcoma. It is hoped that the combination of vinorelbine and low-dose cyclophosphamide can be used as a maintenance regimen in an upcoming European trial involving high-risk patients with rhabdomyosarcoma. METHODS. in the current pilot study, the cyclophosphamide dose was fixed at 25 mg/m(2) per day for 28 days. Vinorelbine was administered intravenously on Days 1, 8, and 15, with trial doses escalated from an initial level of 15 mg/m(2) in steps of 5 mg/m(2); intrapatient dose escalation was not allowed. RESULTS. Between April 2002 and November 2003, 18 patients ages 2-23 years were treated with the study regimen after having received 1-4 (median, 2) other regimens previously. Ninety cycles were administered in total (median, 5 cycles per patient; range, 1-10 cycles per patient). Two cases of dose-limiting toxicity (Grade 4 neutropenia in both cases) were observed among the 5 patients who received vinorelbine at a dose of 30 mg/m(2). Of the 41 cycles in which vinorelbine was administered at a dose of 25 mg/m(2), Grade 3 neutropenia was observed in 15 (37%); no other major toxicity was documented in association with these cycles. One complete remission and 6 partial remissions were noted among the 17 patients who had measurable disease. Three of the eight assessable patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (which was embryonal in two cases and alveolar in one) had responses to treatment. CONCLUSIONS. Combination therapy involving vinorelbine and low-dose cyclo-phosphamide was found to be feasible and to possess activity against recurrent sarcomas. The maintenance therapy doses recommended for use in the upcoming European trial are cyclophosphamide 25 mg/m(2) per day for 28 days and vinorelbine 25 mg/m(2) on Days 1, 8, and 15. (C) 2004 American Cancer Society
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