84 research outputs found

    Neutron-induced fission cross section of 245 Cm: New results from data taken at the time-of-flight facility n_TOF

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    The neutron-induced fission cross section of 245Cm was measured at n-TOF in a wide energy range and with high resolution. The energy dependence, measured in a single measurement from 30 meV to 1 MeV neutron energy, has been determined with 5% accuracy relative to the 235U(n,f) cross section. In order to reduce the uncertainty on the absolute value, the data have been normalized at thermal energy to recent measurements performed at ILL and BR1. In the energy range of overlap, the results are in fair agreement with some previous measurements and confirm, on average, the evaluated cross section in the ENDF/B-VII.0 database, although sizable differences are observed for some important resonances below 20 eV. A similar behavior is observed relative to JENDL/AC-2008, a reactor-oriented database for actinides. The new results contribute to the overall improvement of the databases needed for the design of advanced reactor systems and may lead to refinements of fission models for the actinides.Comisión Europea FIKW-CT-2000-00107 24967

    The presence of toxic metals in popular farmed fish species and estimation of health risks through their consumption

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    This study concerns an assessment of essential and toxic metals (Zn, Cu, As, Cr and Cd) in some popular farm fishes which are largely consumed by the populations of the Southern region in Bangladesh. Three different species of fish (T. nilotica, P. pangasius and L. rohita) were collected from four representative farms located in the Fatickchari, Hathazari, Patiya and Raozan Upazila of Chittagong district. Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (FAAS) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GFAAS) were used to measure the metal concentrations. The order of concentration of metals in flesh was Zn > Cu > Cr > As > Cd with values of 16.205 +/- 0.303 > 0.874 +/- 0.037 > 0.590 +/- 0.05 >0.042 +/- 0.003 > 0.004 +/- 0.00 (mg/kg dw) in T. nilotica, 20.324 +/- 0.697 > 1.035 +/- 0.050> 0.577 +/- 0.074> 0.045 +/- 0.005 > 0.006 +/- 0.000 (mg/kg dw) in P. pangasius and 22.270 +/- 0.745 > 0.953 +/- 0.525 > 0.623 +/- 0.060 > 0.035 +/- 0.002 > 0.004 +/- 0.000 (mg/kg dw) in L. rohita. Measured data lie within the permissible limits recommended by WHO/FAO. Potential metal toxicity to human health following the consumption of the studied fishes was estimated via a number of hazard parameters: Daily intake of metal (DIM), Target hazard quotient (THQ), Hazard index (HI) and Target risk (TR), all of the data show values within the recommended level given by regulatory bodies. Estimated TR for potential carcinogenic metals As, Cr and Cd were found in the range (10_6 - 10_5), which lies within the US-EPA risk range of 10_6 - 10_4. Note that, fish consumption forms a minor part of the total diet while the US-EPA risk range is for the dietary intake from all foods. Therefore the estimated risk may not be totally neglected. Moreover, considering the non-biodegradability of toxic metals and their potential uptake in fish tissues, reduction in metal supplementation in fish feed should be introduced and periodic monitoring of fish may help to mitigate non-essential metal toxicity to consumers

    Present Status and Future Programs of the n_TOF Experiment

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    This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License 3.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any noncommercial medium, provided the original work is properly citedThe neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN, Switzerland, operational since 2001, delivers neutrons using the Proton Synchrotron (PS) 20 GeV/c proton beam impinging on a lead spallation target. The facility combines a very high instantaneous neutron flux, an excellent time of flight resolution due to the distance between the experimental area and the production target (185 meters), a low intrinsic background and a wide range of neutron energies, from thermal to GeV neutrons. These characteristics provide a unique possibility to perform neutron-induced capture and fission cross-section measurements for applications in nuclear astrophysics and in nuclear reactor technology.The most relevant measurements performed up to now and foreseen for the future will be presented in this contribution. The overall efficiency of the experimental program and the range of possible measurements achievable with the construction of a second experimental area (EAR-2), vertically located 20 m on top of the n_TOF spallation target, might offer a substantial improvement in measurement sensitivities. A feasibility study of the possible realisation of the installation extension will be also presented

    Ni-62(n,gamma) and Ni-63(n,gamma) cross sections measured at the n_TOF facility at CERN

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    The cross section of the Ni-62(n,gamma) reaction was measured with the time-of-flight technique at the neutron time-of-flight facility n_TOF at CERN. Capture kernels of 42 resonances were analyzed up to 200 keV neutron energy and Maxwellian averaged cross sections (MACS) from kT = 5-100 keV were calculated. With a total uncertainty of 4.5%, the stellar cross section is in excellent agreement with the the KADoNiS compilation at kT = 30 keV, while being systematically lower up to a factor of 1.6 at higher stellar temperatures. The cross section of the Ni-63(n,gamma) reaction was measured for the first time at n_TOF. We determined unresolved cross sections from 10 to 270 keV with a systematic uncertainty of 17%. These results provide fundamental constraints on s-process production of heavier species, especially the production of Cu in massive stars, which serve as the dominant source of Cu in the solar system.Peer reviewedFinal Accepted Versio

    High accuracy 234U(n,f) cross section in the resonance energy region

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    New results are presented of the 234U neutron-induced fission cross section, obtained with high accuracy in the resonance region by means of two methods using the 235U(n,f) as reference. The recent evaluation of the 235U(n,f) obtained with SAMMY by L. C. Leal et al. (these Proceedings), based on previous n-TOF data [1], has been used to calculate the 234U(n,f) cross section through the 234U/235U ratio, being here compared with the results obtained by using the n-TOF neutron flux

    Fission Fragment Angular Distribution measurements of 235U and 238U at CERN n-TOF facility

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    This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. EJP Web of Conferences 111, 10002 (2016). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/epjconf/201611110002. © 2016 The Authors. Published by EDP Sciences.Neutron-induced fission cross sections of 238U and 235U are used as standards in the fast neutron region up to 200 MeV. A high accuracy of the standards is relevant to experimentally determine other neutron reaction cross sections. Therefore, the detection effciency should be corrected by using the angular distribution of the fission fragments (FFAD), which are barely known above 20 MeV. In addition, the angular distribution of the fragments produced in the fission of highly excited and deformed nuclei is an important observable to investigate the nuclear fission process. In order to measure the FFAD of neutron-induced reactions, a fission detection setup based on parallel-plate avalanche counters (PPACs) has been developed and successfully used at the CERN-n-TOF facility. In this work, we present the preliminary results on the analysis of new 235U(n,f) and 238U(n,f) data in the extended energy range up to 200 MeV compared to the existing experimental data

    Neutron-induced fission cross sections of Th 232 and U 233 up to 1 GeV using parallel plate avalanche counters at the CERN n_TOF facility

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    The neutron-induced fission cross sections of 232^{232}Th and 233^{233}U were measured relative to 235^{235}U in a wide neutron energy range up to 1 GeV (and from fission threshold in the case of 232^{232}Th, and from 0.7 eV in case of 233^{233}U), using the white-spectrum neutron source at the CERN Neutron Time-of-Flight (n_TOF) facility. Parallel plate avalanche counters (PPACs) were used, installed at the Experimental Area 1 (EAR1), which is located at 185 m from the neutron spallation target. The anisotropic emission of fission fragments were taken into account in the detection efficiency by using, in the case of 233^{233}U, previous results available in EXFOR, whereas in the case of 232^{232}Th these data were obtained from our measurement, using PPACs and targets tilted 45∘ with respect to the neutron beam direction. Finally, the obtained results are compared with past measurements and major evaluated nuclear data libraries. Calculations using the high-energy reaction models INCL++ and ABLA07 were performed and some of their parameters were modified to reproduce the experimental results. At high energies, where no other neutron data exist, our results are compared with experimental data on proton-induced fission. Moreover, the dependence of the fission cross section at 1 GeV with the fissility parameter of the target nucleus is studied by combining those (p,f) data with our (n,f) data on 232^{232}Th and 233^{233}U and on other isotopes studied earlier at n_TOF using the same experimental setup

    Experimental neutron capture data of 58Ni from the CERN n_TOF facility

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    The neutron capture cross section of 58 Ni was measured at the neutron time of flight facility n-TOF at CERN, from 27 meV to 400 keV neutron energy. Special care has been taken to identify all the possible sources of background, with the so-called neutron background obtained for the first time using high-precision GEANT4 simulations. The energy range up to 122 keV was treated as the resolved resonance region, where 51 resonances were identified and analyzed by a multilevel R-matrix code SAMMY. Above 122 keV the code SESH was used in analyzing the unresolved resonance region of the capture yield. Maxwellian averaged cross sections were calculated in the temperature range of κT = 5 - 100 keV, and their astrophysical implications were investigated

    Experiments with neutron beams for the astrophysical s process

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    Neutron capture cross sections are the key nuclear physics input to study the slow neutron capture process, which is responsible for forming about half of the elemental abundances above Fe. Stellar neutron capture cross section can be measured by the time-of-flight technique, or by activation. Both techniques will be discussed and recent experiments in the Fe/Ni mass region will be presented
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