29 research outputs found

    Women Empowerment in Agricultural Value Chains: Voices from Onion Growers in Northern Tanzania

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    Women empowerment is multifaceted concept; there are many definitions and perceptions that are used by programmes and projects espousing to empower women. This study, using qualitative data sought to assess women perception on empowerment among those involved in onion value chain development activities. The study adopted cross sectional research design where focus group discussions, key informant interviews and case studies were the main methods for data collection. Content analysis with constant comparison technique was used to analyse the data. The study found that women empowerment is linked to different achievement in their lives in their social and economic contexts such as increases in income, confidence to speak in public, awareness of their rights and participation in decision making at the household and community levels. Men’s attitude and behaviours such as reluctantancy to accept changes suggested by women and control over income accrued from their activities are among the barrier for women empowerment. The study recommends for use of gender sensitive approaches in designing and implementing development programmes on women empowerment. Men and tribal leaders should be involved in women empowerment initiatives in order to change their mindset towards women empowerment. Key words: Women empowerment, value chain, perception, content analysi

    Determinants of Women Empowerment in the Onion Value Chain: A Case of Simanjiro District in Tanzania

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    The impact of women participation in agricultural value chains into their empowerment is poorly understood. This paper explores the linkage between women’s participation in onion value chain development activities and their empowerment. The study involved 402 women of whom 207 (51.2%) were participating in the onion value chain development activities and 195(48.5%) were non-participants. Data was analyzed using SPSS program, four index scales were constructed to measure women empowerment (personal autonomy, household decision making, economic domestic consultation and freedom of movement). A composite women empowerment index was developed to gauge women empowerment. Women in Simanjiro District were categorized in medium level of empowerment (mean score on CEI = 0.6033). Empowerment was found to increase with education attainment, age at first marriage and women income. Generally, women participating in the value chain development programme were more likely to be empowered than their counterparts. Ordinal logistic regression analysis revealed that there was a significant relationship between women empowerment and  marital status, education level, age at first marriage, land ownership, access to credits and participation in onion value chain (P<0.05). The study recommends to the government, non governmental organization and farmers groups to introduce gender and life skills education in value chain programmes to sensitize and mobilize actors to challenge gender inequalities and promote women empowerment. Key words: Women empowerment, empowerment indices, onion value chain, rural women

    Agricultural Commercialisation and the Political Economy of Value Chains: Tanzania Rice Case Study

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    This paper presents the political economy of rice commercialisation in Tanzania. It is based on a review of trade policies, regulations, strategies, and programmes implemented since the 1960s to promote rice commercialisation, and the views of key informants. Key findings that emerge from the review of literature and key informant interviews indicate that the performance of the value chain over time has been negatively affected by the combined effects of the policies, regulations, strategies, and programmes implemented concurrently

    Sunflower Commercialisation in Singida Region: Pathways for Livelihood Improvement

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    Sunflower commercialisation in Singida Region, Tanzania has been successful. The successes include increased oilseed production, expanding processing capacity and declining rural poverty. Policies and efforts by development agents to promote sunflower commercialisation have increased the number of actors and service providers. Accumulation from sunflower and other enterprises, including livestock, have not only improved livelihoods, but also contributed to household economic diversity. This paper examines the interactions between activities involved in sunflower production and other livelihood strategies. For example, the paper examines local dynamics in policy and business contexts that have shaped livelihood options available and people’s choices of which option they undertake, and the corresponding outcomes, and reasons for such commercialisation trajectories. The study aims to inform local, regional, and national strategies, to pursue more inclusive and sustainable agriculture development, and widen options and pathways for men and women in Mkalama and Iramba districts of Singida Region

    Is Agricultural Commercialisation Sufficient for Poverty Reduction? Lessons from Rice Commercialisation in Kilombero, Tanzania

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    Agricultural commercialisation is widely promoted as a solution for poverty alleviation among smallholder farmers because it has been associated with rising cash income, improved nutrition and living standards. In Tanzania, agricultural commercialization is an important component for agricultural transformation to meet national goals and achieve global sustainable development goals. This paper uses data from Mngeta division in Kilombero district, a major rice-producing area in Tanzania, to demonstrate that attaining higher commercialisation may not be enough to ensure poverty reduction among small-scale farmers and medium-scale farmers. The findings show that rice commercialisation in the study area was driven by intensification and extensification through sustainable rice intensification technologies and animal-drawn technologies, respectively. Nonetheless, the majority of medium-scale farmers who employed animal drawn technology for area expansion and scored the highest rice commercialisation index, surprisingly, scored the highest multidimensional poverty index, representing a higher poverty level than small-scale farmers. This demonstrates that while increased cash income through commercialisation is necessary, it is not sufficient to ensure poverty reduction. Hence more needs to be done to address institutional and cultural factors that impede initiatives to translate higher income to livelihood improvement and facilitate inclusive poverty reduction

    Livestock, Crop Commercialization and Poverty Reduction in Crop-Livestock Farming Systems in Singida Region, Tanzania

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    Livestock is an important component of crop-livestock farming systems in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This paper examined the effect of livestock on crop commercialization and poverty reduction among smallholder farmers in crop-livestock farming systems in Singida Region, Tanzania. It was hypothesized that livestock enhances crop commercialization and reduce poverty among smallholder farmers in the Region. Data for the analysis were extracted from the Agricultural Policy Research for Africa (APRA) data set of 600 households selected randomly from random samples of eight and seven villages in Iramba and Mkalama districts respectively. Descriptive statistics were used to compare ownership of livestock, use of ox-plough and livestock manure, crop productivity, crop commercialization and poverty levels across different categories of farmers. Econometric analyses were used to determine if livestock had a significant effect on crop commercialization and poverty levels, controlling for other variables that might have an effect. The results of descriptive analyses show differences in ownership of livestock, use of ox-plough and livestock manure, crop productivity, crop commercialization and poverty levels across different categories of farmers while the results of econometric analysis show that livestock enhanced crop commercialization. Apart from livestock, a range of other factors have worked together with livestock to drive the crop commercialization process. Regarding the impact of commercialization, the findings show that farmers have gained higher productivity (yield), signifying the potential of crop commercialization to reduce poverty. In general, evidence from the results show decline in poverty as crop commercialization increases from zero to medium level. Although crop commercialization has positively impacted on crop productivity (yields) and poverty, the results show existence of socio-economic disparities. Male-headed households (MHH) and households headed by medium-scale farmers (MSF), young farmers and livestock keepers were less poor than their counterpart female-headed households (FHH) and households headed by small-scale farmers (SSFs), older farmers and non-livestock keepers. These social differences are consequences of differences in the use of ox-plough, livestock manure and other productivity enhancing inputs. Exploiting the synergy between crop and livestock in crop-livestock farming systems needs to be recognized and exploited in efforts geared towards enhancing crop commercialization and reducing poverty among smallholder farmers in crop-livestock farming systems in Tanzania and elsewhere in SSA

    Choice of Tillage Technologies and Impact on Paddy Yield and Food Security in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

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    This paper analyses choice of alternative tillage technology options and their impact on paddy yield and food security in Kilombero valley of Morogoro Region, Tanzania. The results show that the choice of any tillage technology option combining hand hoe with animal traction and/or tractor is influenced by characteristics of household head (sex, age and education), access to extension, dependency ratio, land size and livestock assets. As hypothesized the three improved tillage technology options above the hand hoe enhance paddy yield and improve household food security. Factors other than tillage technology options that influence paddy yield and food security are characteristics of household head(sex, age and education), access to extension, use of fertilizer and herbicides, dependency ratio, farm size and livestock assets. The study recommends promotion of tillage technology options involving use of animal traction and yield enhancing inputs

    Rice Commercialization in Mngeta Kilombero District, Tanzania: Policy Implications for Inclusive Poverty Reduction

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    Agricultural commercialization is sought for its effect on productivity, income and livelihood improvement. Rising agricultural commercialization also contributes to employment, foreign currency and government revenue through taxes. It may however have various undesirable outcomes. Rising commercialization from area expansion may increase the smallholders’ vulnerability if they sell part or all of their land. Meanwhile, intensification can have negative effects from increasing use and poor handling of agrochemicals.  This paper used pooled cross section data on rice commercialization from Mngeta division in Kilombero valley, Tanzania; collected in two waves (2017 and 2019), to assess commercialization levels among different farmer categories and its impact of on livelihoods and social inclusion.  The paper addresses three basic questions; Are commercialization levels dynamic over time? Do commercialization levels differ across farmer categories? Is rice commercialization poverty reducing at all levels? The analysis compares across farmer categories, the effect of commercialization influencing factors and the subsequent effect of rice commercialization on livelihood outcomes. The findings show that commercialization is happening through intensification and extensification but it is not yet on a steady increasing trend and both options have sustainability implication. Meanwhile, poverty reduction is observed across all farmer categories due to rice commercialization and diversified livelihood options, however it is only significant above the fourth quintile (>60% with a social difference). Gender, age and cultural norms are identified as exclusion barrier that need to be addressed in order to enhance inclusion of those benefiting less from agricultural commercialization processes. These finding inform village, district and national level decision makers as they strive to overcome inclusion barriers Keywords: Commercialization, inclusion, diversification, rice, poverty reduction, Kilombero, Tanzania DOI: 10.7176/DCS/12-7-04 Publication date:September 30th 202

    Rice Commercialisation Effects in Mngeta, Kilombero District, Tanzania: Identifying the Underlying Factors

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    Rice production is the most dominant farming system in Kilombero valley in Morogoro region, Tanzania, accounting for more than 80 per cent of cultivated land within the valley. This paper examines changes in rice commercialisation and livelihood outcomes for different categories of farmers in the Mngeta division, Kilombero District, Tanzania. Understanding the underlying factors of agricultural commercialisation enables policymakers to ensure that policy interventions promote inclusive and equitable involvement of all farmers and other value chain actors, especially women and youths, who have been excluded from most development initiatives in the past

    Livestock, Crop Commercialisation and Poverty Reduction Among Rural Households in the Singida Region, Tanzania

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    Livestock is an important component of mixed crop-livestock farming systems in the Singida Region in Tanzania, directly or indirectly contributing to household income, food security and poverty reduction among rural people in the region. This paper examined the effect of livestock on crop commercialisation and farmers’ livelihoods in the region. The complementarity between crops and livestock in the farming systems of Singida needs to be recognised, enhanced and utilised not only by farmers and livestock keepers, but also by local government authorities and development practitioners
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