782 research outputs found

    Direct measurement of spatial Wigner function with area-integrated detection

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    We demonstrate experimentally a novel technique for characterizing transverse spatial coherence using the Wigner distribution function. The presented method is based on measuring interference between a pair of rotated and displaced replicas of the input beam with an area-integrating detector, and it can be superior in regimes when array detectors are not available. We analyze the quantum optical picture of the presented measurement for single-photon signals and discuss possible applications in quantum information processing.Comment: 3 pages, REVTe

    Wrist-Worn Physical Activity Trackers Tend To Underestimate Steps During Walking

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    International Journal of Exercise Science 10(5): 764-773, 2017. The purpose of this study was to determine step-count accuracy of pedometers at different walking speeds. Ten recreationally active participants walked at five treadmill speeds (0.89, 1.11, 1.34, 1.56, and 1.79 m/s) for five minutes while wearing four wrist-worn activity trackers (Fitbit Charge HR¬ģ, Garmin Vivosmart HR¬ģ, Apple iWatch¬ģ, Jawbone UP3¬ģ) and the hip-worn Digi-Walker¬ģ. Each step was manually counted by a research technician (benchmark). Total step count at each speed was obtained for each device and compared to the benchmark using one-way MANOVA and Pearson correlation coefficient. For all five speeds, the Digi-Walker¬ģ yielded the most accurate values, averaging -0.4% difference from the benchmark counted steps, and showed the strongest correlation, r \u3e.730, p \u3c.05, at every speed. The Fitbit averaged the highest percent difference of -10.2% from the benchmark of counted steps, and underestimated steps at all speeds (p \u3c0.05). Garmin averaged a -2.7% step difference, Jawbone averaged a -5.3% step difference, and the iWatch showed a -7.9% step difference. Specifically, the Fitbit, Garmin, and Jawbone got progressively worse with increasing speed, whereas the iWatch performed the worst at the slowest and fastest speeds. All wrist-worn devices tested tended to underestimate steps. These data indicate that wrist-worn pedometers are inaccurate even with a specific designed purpose: count steps in a controlled manner. Because these devices are inaccurate in this setting, they remain highly questionable for accuracy in a real-world setting in which the definition of a ‚Äústep‚ÄĚ becomes less finite

    Phosphorylation-dependent BRD4 dimerization and implications for therapeutic inhibition of BET family proteins.

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    Funder: AstraZenecaFunder: AstraZeneca postdoc fundBromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4) is an epigenetic reader and oncology drug target that regulates gene transcription through binding to acetylated chromatin via bromodomains. Phosphorylation by casein kinase II (CK2) regulates BRD4 function, is necessary for active transcription and is involved in resistance to BRD4 drug inhibition in triple-negative breast cancer. Here, we provide the first biophysical analysis of BRD4 phospho-regulation. Using integrative structural biology, we show that phosphorylation by CK2 modulates the dimerization of human BRD4. We identify two conserved regions, a coiled-coil motif and the Basic-residue enriched Interaction Domain (BID), essential for the BRD4 structural rearrangement, which we term the phosphorylation-dependent dimerization domain (PDD). Finally, we demonstrate that bivalent inhibitors induce a conformational change within BRD4 dimers in vitro and in cancer cells. Our results enable the proposal of a model for BRD4 activation critical for the characterization of its protein-protein interaction network and for the development of more specific therapeutics

    The Alberta Heart Failure Etiology and Analysis Research Team (HEART) study

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    Background Nationally, symptomatic heart failure affects 1.5-2% of Canadians, incurs $3 billion in hospital costs annually and the global burden is expected to double in the next 1‚Äď2 decades. The current one-year mortality rate after diagnosis of heart failure remains high at >25%. Consequently, new therapeutic strategies need to be developed for this debilitating condition. Methods/Design The objective of the Alberta HEART program (http://albertaheartresearch.ca) is to develop novel diagnostic, therapeutic and prognostic approaches to patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. We hypothesize that novel imaging techniques and biomarkers will aid in describing heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Furthermore, the development of new diagnostic criteria will allow us to: 1) better define risk factors associated with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; 2) elucidate clinical, cellular and molecular mechanisms involved with the development and progression of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction; 3) design and test new therapeutic strategies for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Additionally, Alberta HEART provides training and education for enhancing translational medicine, knowledge translation and clinical practice in heart failure. This is a prospective observational cohort study of patients with, or at risk for, heart failure. Patients will have sequential testing including quality of life and clinical outcomes over 12 months. After that time, study participants will be passively followed via linkage to external administrative databases. Clinical outcomes of interest include death, hospitalization, emergency department visits, physician resource use and/or heart transplant. Patients will be followed for a total of 5 years. Discussion Alberta HEART has the primary objective to define new diagnostic criteria for patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. New criteria will allow for targeted therapies, diagnostic tests and further understanding of the patients, both at-risk for and with heart failure

    Sediment source fingerprinting: benchmarking recent outputs, remaining challenges and emerging themes

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    Abstract: Purpose: This review of sediment source fingerprinting assesses the current state-of-the-art, remaining challenges and emerging themes. It combines inputs from international scientists either with track records in the approach or with expertise relevant to progressing the science. Methods: Web of Science and Google Scholar were used to review published papers spanning the period 2013‚Äď2019, inclusive, to confirm publication trends in quantities of papers by study area country and the types of tracers used. The most recent (2018‚Äď2019, inclusive) papers were also benchmarked using a methodological decision-tree published in 2017. Scope: Areas requiring further research and international consensus on methodological detail are reviewed, and these comprise spatial variability in tracers and corresponding sampling implications for end-members, temporal variability in tracers and sampling implications for end-members and target sediment, tracer conservation and knowledge-based pre-selection, the physico-chemical basis for source discrimination and dissemination of fingerprinting results to stakeholders. Emerging themes are also discussed: novel tracers, concentration-dependence for biomarkers, combining sediment fingerprinting and age-dating, applications to sediment-bound pollutants, incorporation of supportive spatial information to augment discrimination and modelling, aeolian sediment source fingerprinting, integration with process-based models and development of open-access software tools for data processing. Conclusions: The popularity of sediment source fingerprinting continues on an upward trend globally, but with this growth comes issues surrounding lack of standardisation and procedural diversity. Nonetheless, the last 2 years have also evidenced growing uptake of critical requirements for robust applications and this review is intended to signpost investigators, both old and new, towards these benchmarks and remaining research challenges for, and emerging options for different applications of, the fingerprinting approach

    The 2011 Survey on Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) in China:Prevalence, Risk Factors, Complications, Pregnancy and Perinatal Outcomes

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    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP) are a group of medical complications in pregnancy and also a risk factor for severe pregnancy outcomes, but it lacks a large-scale epidemiological investigation in recent years. This survey represents a multicenter cross-sectional retrospective study to estimate the prevalence and analyze the risk factors for HDP among the pregnant women who had referred for delivery between January 1st 2011 and December 31st 2011 in China Mainland. A total of 112,386 pregnant women were investigated from 38 secondary and tertiary specialized or general hospitals randomly selected across the country, of which 5,869 had HDP, accounting for 5.22% of all pregnancies. There were significant differences in the prevalence of HDP between geographical regions, in which the North China showed the highest (7.44%) and Central China showed the lowest (1.23%). Of six subtypes of HDP, severe preeclampsia accounted for 39.96%, gestational hypertension for 31.40%, mild preeclampsia for 15.13%, chronic hypertension in pregnancy for 6.00%, preeclampsia superimposed on chronic hypertension for 3.68% and eclampsia for 0.89%. A number of risk factors for HDP were identified, including twin pregnancy, age of >35 years, overweight and obesity, primipara, history of hypertension as well as family history of hypertension and diabetes. The prevalence of pre-term birth, placental abruption and postpartum hemorrhage were significantly higher in women with HDP than those without HDP. The possible risk factors confirmed in this study may be useful for the development of early diagnosis and appropriate treatment of HDP

    Measurement of the top quark forward-backward production asymmetry and the anomalous chromoelectric and chromomagnetic moments in pp collisions at ‚ąös = 13 TeV

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    Abstract The parton-level top quark (t) forward-backward asymmetry and the anomalous chromoelectric (dŐā t) and chromomagnetic (őľŐā t) moments have been measured using LHC pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV, collected in the CMS detector in a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 35.9 fb‚ąí1. The linearized variable AFB(1) is used to approximate the asymmetry. Candidate t t ¬Į events decaying to a muon or electron and jets in final states with low and high Lorentz boosts are selected and reconstructed using a fit of the kinematic distributions of the decay products to those expected for t t ¬Į final states. The values found for the parameters are AFB(1)=0.048‚ąí0.087+0.095(stat)‚ąí0.029+0.020(syst),őľŐāt=‚ąí0.024‚ąí0.009+0.013(stat)‚ąí0.011+0.016(syst), and a limit is placed on the magnitude of | dŐā t| < 0.03 at 95% confidence level. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

    Search for new particles in events with energetic jets and large missing transverse momentum in proton-proton collisions at root s=13 TeV