722 research outputs found

    Women\u27s risk perception and sexual victimization: A review of the literature

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    This article reviews empirical and theoretical studies that examined the relationship between risk perception and sexual victimization in women. Studies examining women\u27s general perceptions of risk for sexual assault as well as their ability to identify and respond to threat in specific situations are reviewed. Theoretical discussions of the optimistic bias and cognitive–ecological models of risk recognition are discussed in order to account for findings in the literature. Implications for interventions with women as well as recommendations for future research are provided

    Imaging Thermal Stratigraphy in Freshwater Lakes Using Georadar

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    Thermal stratification exerts significant control over biogeochemical processing in freshwater lakes. Thus, the temporal and spatial distribution of the thermal structure is an important component in understanding lake ecosystems. We present the first reported observations of lake thermal stratification from surface based georadar measurements acquired over two small freshwater lakes. This method is very useful because it can provide rapid acquisition of 2D or 3D lotic stratification

    Solar Carbon Monoxide, Thermal Profiling, and the Abundances of C, O, and their Isotopes

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    A solar photospheric "thermal profiling" analysis is presented, exploiting the infrared rovibrational bands of carbon monoxide (CO) as observed with the McMath-Pierce Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at Kitt Peak, and from above the Earth's atmosphere by the Shuttle-borne ATMOS experiment. Visible continuum intensities and center-limb behavior constrained the temperature profile of the deep photosphere, while CO center-limb behavior defined the thermal structure at higher altitudes. The oxygen abundance was self consistently determined from weak CO absorptions. Our analysis was meant to complement recent studies based on 3-D convection models which, among other things, have revised the historical solar oxygen (and carbon) abundance downward by a factor of nearly two; although in fact our conclusions do not support such a revision. Based on various considerations, an oxygen abundance of 700+/-100 ppm (parts per million relative to hydrogen) is recommended; the large uncertainty reflects the model sensitivity of CO. New solar isotopic ratios also are reported for 13C, 17O, and 18O.Comment: 90 pages, 19 figures (some with parts "a", "b", etc.); to be published in the Astrophysical Journal Supplement

    First results of the BATSE/COMPTEL/NMSU rapid burst response campaign

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    The Imaging Compton Telescope (COMPTEL) on board the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory regularly observes gamma‐ray bursts which occur inside the instrument’s ∼1 sr field‐of‐view. COMPTEL images bursts in the 0.75–30 MeV energy range with a typical location accuracy of 1–3 degrees, depending on burst strength, position, duration, and spectrum. COMPTEL’s imaging capability has been exploited in order to search for fading gamma‐ray burst counterparts at other wavelengths through the establishment of a BATSE/COMPTEL/NMSU rapid burst response campaign. This campaign utilizes near real‐time identification and preliminary burst location by BATSE, accelerated COMPTEL imaging, and a world‐wide network of observers to search COMPTEL error boxes as quickly as possible. Timely, deep searches for lingering counterpart emission of several bursts per year are the realized goal of this campaign. During its first year of operation, the rapid response program has been successfully applied to two strong bursts: GRB 930131 and GRB 930309. These bursts were imaged in record time only hours after their occurrence. Subsequently, several observations were made at radio and optical observatories world‐wide

    Maternal care boosted by paternal imprinting in mammals.

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    In mammals, mothers are the primary caregiver, programmed, in part, by hormones produced during pregnancy. High-quality maternal care is essential for the survival and lifelong health of offspring. We previously showed that the paternally silenced imprinted gene pleckstrin homology-like domain family A member 2 (Phlda2) functions to negatively regulate a single lineage in the mouse placenta called the spongiotrophoblast, a major source of hormones in pregnancy. Consequently, the offspring's Phlda2 gene dosage may influence the quality of care provided by the mother. Here, we show that wild-type (WT) female mice exposed to offspring with three different doses of the maternally expressed Phlda2 gene-two active alleles, one active allele (the extant state), and loss of function-show changes in the maternal hypothalamus and hippocampus during pregnancy, regions important for maternal-care behaviour. After birth, WT dams exposed in utero to offspring with the highest Phlda2 dose exhibit decreased nursing and grooming of pups and increased focus on nest building. Conversely, 'paternalised' dams, exposed to the lowest Phlda2 dose, showed increased nurturing of their pups, increased self-directed behaviour, and a decreased focus on nest building, behaviour that was robustly maintained in the absence of genetically modified pups. This work raises the intriguing possibility that imprinting of Phlda2 contributed to increased maternal care during the evolution of mammals

    Hyporheic Exchange and Water Chemistry of Two Arctic Tundra Streams of Contrasting Geomorphology

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    The North Slope of Alaska’s Brooks Range is underlain by continuous permafrost, but an active layer of thawed sediments develops at the tundra surface and beneath streambeds during the summer, facilitating hyporheic exchange. Our goal was to understand how active layer extent and stream geomorphology influence hyporheic exchange and nutrient chemistry. We studied two arctic tundra streams of contrasting geomorphology: a high-gradient, alluvial stream with riffle-pool sequences and a low-gradient, peat-bottomed stream with large deep pools connected by deep runs. Hyporheic exchange occurred to ~50 cm beneath the alluvial streambed and to only ~15 cm beneath the peat streambed. The thaw bulb was deeper than the hyporheic exchange zone in both stream types. The hyporheic zone was a net source of ammonium and soluble reactive phosphorus in both stream types. The hyporheic zone was a net source of nitrate in the alluvial stream, but a net nitrate sink in the peat stream. The mass flux of nutrients regenerated from the hyporheic zones in these two streams was a small portion of the surface water mass flux. Although small, hyporheic sources of regenerated nutrients help maintain the in-stream nutrient balance. If future warming in the arctic increases the depth of the thaw bulb, it may not increase the vertical extent of hyporheic exchange. The greater impacts on annual contributions of hyporheic regeneration are likely to be due to longer thawed seasons, increased sediment temperatures or changes in geomorphology

    Influence of Morphology and Permafrost Dynamics on Hyporheic Exchange in Arctic Headwater Streams under Warming Climate Conditions

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    We investigated surface-subsurface (hyporheic) exchange in two morphologically distinct arctic headwater streams experiencing warming (thawing) sub-channel conditions. Empirically parameterized and calibrated groundwater flow models were used to assess the influence of sub-channel thaw on hyporheic exchange. Average thaw depths were at least two-fold greater under the higher-energy, alluvial stream than under the lowenergy, peat-lined stream. Alluvial hyporheic exchange had shorter residence times and longer flowpaths that occurred across greater portions of the thawed sediments. For both reaches, the morphologic (longitudinal bed topography) and hydraulic conditions (surface and groundwater flow properties) set the potential for hyporheic flow. Simulations of deeper thaw, as predicted under a warming arctic climate, only influence hyporheic exchange until a threshold depth. This depth is primarily determined by the hydraulic head gradients imposed by the stream morphology. Therefore, arctic hyporheic exchange extent is likely to be independent of greater sub-stream thaw depths

    До питання проблематики розвитку логістичного аутсорсингу ринку України

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    Genomic imprinting, the epigenetic process by which transcription occurs from a single parental allele, is believed influence social behaviours in mammals. An important social behaviour is group living, which is enriched in Eutherian mammals relative to monotremes and marsupials. Group living facilitates resource acquisition, defence of territory and co-care of young, but requires a stable social group with complex inter-individual relationships. Co-occurring with increased group living in Eutherians is an increase in the number of imprinted loci, including that spanning the maternally expressed Cdkn1c. Using a ‘loss-of-imprinting’ model of Cdkn1c (Cdkn1cBACx1), we demonstrated that two-fold over expression of Cdkn1c results in abnormal social behaviours. Although our previous work indicated that male Cdkn1cBACx1 mice were more dominant as measured by tube-test encounters with unfamiliar wild-type males. Building upon this work, using more ecologically relevant assessments of social dominance, indicated that within their normal social group, Cdkn1cBACx1 mice did not occupy higher ranking positions. Nevertheless, we find that presence of Cdkn1cBACx1 animals within a group leads to instability of the normal social hierarchy, as indicated by greater variability in social rank within the group over time and an increase in territorial behaviour in WT cage-mates. Consequently, these abnormal behaviours led to an increased incidence of fighting and wounding within the group. Taken together these data indicate that normal expression of Cdkn1c is required for maintaining stability of the social group and suggests that the acquisition of monoallelic expression of Cdkn1c may have enhanced social behaviour in Eutherian mammals to facilitate group living

    Imprinted genes influencing the quality of maternal care

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    In mammals successful rearing imposes a cost on later reproductive fitness specifically on the mother creating the potential for parental conflict. Loss of function of three imprinted genes in the dam result in deficits in maternal care suggesting that, like maternal nutrients, maternal care is a resource over which the parental genomes are in conflict. However, the induction of maternal care is a complex and highly regulated process. Unsurprisingly many gene disruptions, as well as adverse environmental exposures in pregnancy, result in maternal care deficits. Recent compelling evidence for a more purposeful imprinting phenomenon comes from studying the impact of two imprinted genes, Phlda2 and Peg3, expressed in the placenta on the mother’s behaviour. The explicit demonstration that imprinted genes expressed in the offspring influence maternal behaviour lends significant weight to the hypothesis that maternal care is a resource that has been manipulated by the paternal genome
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