12,571 research outputs found

    The envirome and the connectome: exploring the structural noise in the human brain associated with socioeconomic deprivation

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    Complex cognitive functions are widely recognized to be the result of a number of brain regions working together as large-scale networks. Recently, complex network analysis has been used to characterize various structural properties of the large scale network organization of the brain. For example, the human brain has been found to have a modular architecture i.e. regions within the network form communities (modules) with more connections between regions within the community compared to regions outside it. The aim of this study was to examine the modular and overlapping modular architecture of the brain networks using complex network analysis. We also examined the association between neighborhood level deprivation and brain network structure ā€“ modularity and grey nodes. We compared network structure derived from anatomical MRI scans of 42 middle-aged neurologically healthy men from the least (LD) and the most deprived (MD) neighborhoods of Glasgow with their corresponding random networks. Cortical morphological covariance networks were constructed from the cortical thickness derived from the MRI scans of the brain. For a given modularity threshold, networks derived from the MD group showed similar number of modules compared to their corresponding random networks, while networks derived from the LD group had more modules compared to their corresponding random networks. The MD group also had fewer grey nodes ā€“ a measure of overlapping modular structure. These results suggest that apparent structural difference in brain networks may be driven by differences in cortical thicknesses between groups. This demonstrates a structural organization that is consistent with a system that is less robust and less efficient in information processing. These findings provide some evidence of the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and brain network topology

    Musculoskeletal adaptations to physical interventions in spinal cord injury

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    Fuel conservative guidance concept for shipboard landing of powered-life aircraft

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    A simulation study was undertaken to investigate the application of energy conservative guidance (ECG) software, developed at NASA Ames Research Center, to improve the time and fuel efficiency of powered lift airplanes operating from aircraft carriers at sea. When a flightpath is indicated by a set of initial conditions for the aircraft and a set of positional waypoints with associated airspeeds, the ECG software synthesizes the necessary guidance commands to optimize fuel and time along the specified path. A major feature of the ECG system is the ability to synthesize a trajectory that will allow the aircraft to capture the specified path at any waypoint with the desired heading and airspeed from an arbitrary set of initial conditions. Five paths were identified and studied. These paths demonstrate the ECG system's ability to save flight time and fuel by more efficiently managing the aircraft's capabilities. Results of this simulation study show that when restrictions on the approach flightpath imposed for manual operation are removed completely, fuel consumption during the approach was reduced by as much as 49% (610 lb fuel) and the time required to fly the flightpath was reduced by as much as 41% (5 min). Savings due to ECG were produced by: (1) shortening the total flight time; (2) keeping the airspeed high as long as possible to minimize time spent flying in a regime in which more engine thrust is required for lift to aid the aerodynamic lift; (3) minimizing time spent flying at constant altitude at slow airspeeds; and (4) synthesizing a path from any location for a direct approach to landing without entering a holding pattern or other fixed approach path

    Smelly maps: the digital life of urban smellscapes

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    Smell has a huge influence over how we perceive places. Despite its importance, smell has been crucially overlooked by urban planners and scientists alike, not least because it is difficult to record and analyze at scale. One of the authors of this paper has ventured out in the urban world and conducted ``smellwalks'' in a variety of cities: participants were exposed to a range of different smellscapes and asked to record their experiences. As a result, smell-related words have been collected and classified, creating the first dictionary for urban smell. Here we explore the possibility of using social media data to reliably map the smells of entire cities. To this end, for both Barcelona and London, we collect geo-referenced picture tags from Flickr and Instagram, and geo-referenced tweets from Twitter. We match those tags and tweets with the words in the smell dictionary. We find that smell-related words are best classified in ten categories. We also find that specific categories (e.g., industry, transport, cleaning) correlate with governmental air quality indicators, adding validity to our study

    ISTRAŽIVANJE MOGUĆNOSTI RASTA KOMARČI DRŽANIH U KOMERCIJALNOM RECIRKULACIJSKOM SISTEMU I TRETIRANIH NUSPROIZVODOM INDUSTRIJSKE PROIZVODNJE GOVEĐEG HORMONA RASTA

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    Gilthead sea bream, maintained in a commercial scale recirculation system, were subjected to three injections (0,5 and 10 Āµg -1 body weight) with a by-product from the industrial production of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH). Injections were provided at experiment start and at 3 and 6 weeks. Growth performance of animals was evaluated over a period of 8 weeks (n = 171 per treatment). At trial end fish were examined for proximate composition, fillet yield and visceral indices. No differences were recorded in individual growth performance between the three treatment groups (P > 0.05). Examination of protein productive value and protein efficiency ratio indicated approximately 20% of dietary protein was incorporated into animals irrespective of treatment. However incorporation of dietary lipid decreased with increasing dose of rbGH. High dose GH decreased liver weight (P 0,05). Istraživanje vrijednosti produktivnog proteina i količine efikasnosti proteina pokazalo je da je približno 20% proteina bilo inkorporirano u životinje neovisno o tretmanu. No inkorporacija lipida bila je smanjena povećanjem doze hormona rasta (rbGH). Visoka doza hormona rasta smanjila je težinu jetre (P < 0,05) u usporedbi s kontrolom s istodobnim smanjenjem hepatosomatskog indeksa (P < 0,05). Težina i postotak fileta bili su viÅ”i u životinja tretiranih dozom od 10 Āµg g -1 tjelesne težine u usporedbi s niskom dozom rbGH tretiranih riba (P < 0,05)

    ISTRAŽIVANJE MOGUĆNOSTI RASTA KOMARČI DRŽANIH U KOMERCIJALNOM RECIRKULACIJSKOM SISTEMU I TRETIRANIH NUSPROIZVODOM INDUSTRIJSKE PROIZVODNJE GOVEĐEG HORMONA RASTA

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    Gilthead sea bream, maintained in a commercial scale recirculation system, were subjected to three injections (0,5 and 10 Āµg -1 body weight) with a by-product from the industrial production of recombinant bovine growth hormone (rbGH). Injections were provided at experiment start and at 3 and 6 weeks. Growth performance of animals was evaluated over a period of 8 weeks (n = 171 per treatment). At trial end fish were examined for proximate composition, fillet yield and visceral indices. No differences were recorded in individual growth performance between the three treatment groups (P > 0.05). Examination of protein productive value and protein efficiency ratio indicated approximately 20% of dietary protein was incorporated into animals irrespective of treatment. However incorporation of dietary lipid decreased with increasing dose of rbGH. High dose GH decreased liver weight (P 0,05). Istraživanje vrijednosti produktivnog proteina i količine efikasnosti proteina pokazalo je da je približno 20% proteina bilo inkorporirano u životinje neovisno o tretmanu. No inkorporacija lipida bila je smanjena povećanjem doze hormona rasta (rbGH). Visoka doza hormona rasta smanjila je težinu jetre (P < 0,05) u usporedbi s kontrolom s istodobnim smanjenjem hepatosomatskog indeksa (P < 0,05). Težina i postotak fileta bili su viÅ”i u životinja tretiranih dozom od 10 Āµg g -1 tjelesne težine u usporedbi s niskom dozom rbGH tretiranih riba (P < 0,05)

    Spectropolarimetry of the H-alpha line in Herbig Ae/Be stars

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    Using the HiVIS spectropolarimeter built for the Haleakala 3.7m AEOS telescope, we have obtained a large number of high precision spectropolarimetrc observations (284) of Herbig AeBe stars collected over 53 nights totaling more than 300 hours of observing. Our sample of five HAeBe stars: AB Aurigae, MWC480, MWC120, MWC158 and HD58647, all show systematic variations in the linear polarization amplitude and direction as a function of time and wavelength near the H-alpha line. In all our stars, the H-alpha line profiles show evidence of an intervening disk or outflowing wind, evidenced by strong emission with an absorptive component. The linear polarization varies by 0.2% to 1.5% with the change typically centered in the absorptive part of the line profile. These observations are inconsistent with a simple disk-scattering model or a depolarization model which produce polarization changes centered on the emmissive core. We speculate that polarized absorption via optical pumping of the intervening gas may be the cause.Comment: Accepted for publication in ApJ Letter

    Case Studies of Systems Integration through Energy Simulation During Early Design Phase

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    The paper presents two case studies, a commercial & a community project, in Houston Texas, where energy simulation and a decision matrix were used to solve budget conflicts and meet LEED EA-1 requirements. The first case study consists of the analysis of three different direct-expansion (DX) systems in an underfloor air distribution (UFAD) configuration for an office building with an unusually large footprint. Of the three options, only two could meet EA-1 pre-requisite for LEED-NC certification while meeting the project budget. The second case study involves analysis of a 120,000 sf. Community recreation center with multiple space types and operation schedules. The analysis employed different combinations of energy recovery systems, efficient lighting package, skylights and large efficient ceiling fans. While all the options met LEED-NC EA-1 prerequisite, each had a different payback time. Finally a combination of strategies was used for optimum payback and energy efficiency

    Plant viruses.

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    Clover viruses, 82ES38, 82AL47, 82MA19, 82BR19, 82BY29; 82BU5, 82HA9. Lupin virus, diseases. Barley yellow dwarf virus, 82AL46, 82AL51, 82B10, 82BA33, 82BR16, 82BR18, 82C29, 82E27, 82ES37, 82ES40, 82JE19, 82JE20, 82KA33, 82KA34, 82ABI3, 82MA18, 82MN22, 82MT34, 82NA32, 82WH28,82B8, 82MN17, 82E24, 82MT30, 82E25, 82MN18, 82MT31, 82B9, 82ABI2, 82BA31, 82C26, 82JE17, 82WH27, 82AL45, 82BR17, 82ES39, 82MA1, 82MA117, 82MT33

    On the Creation of a Fuzzy Dataset for the Evaluation of Fuzzy Semantic Similarity Measures

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    Short text semantic similarity (STSS) measures are algorithms designed to compare short texts and return a level of similarity between them. However, until recently such measures have ignored perception or fuzzy based words (i.e. very hot, cold less cold) in calculations of both word and sentence similarity. Evaluation of such measures is usually achieved through the use of benchmark data sets comprising of a set of rigorously collected sentence pairs which have been evaluated by human participants. A weakness of these datasets is that the sentences pairs include limited, if any, fuzzy based words that makes them impractical for evaluating fuzzy sentence similarity measures. In this paper, a method is presented for the creation of a new benchmark dataset known as SFWD (Single Fuzzy Word Dataset). After creation the data set is then used in the evaluation of FAST, an ontology based fuzzy algorithm for semantic similarity testing that uses concepts of fuzzy and computing with words to allow for the accurate representation of fuzzy based words. The SFWD is then used to undertake a comparative analysis of other established STSS measures
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