82 research outputs found

    Sensational Spiritualism: The Study of 19th-Century Reporting and Its Effect on the Spiritualist Movement

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    The project "Sensational Spiritualism: The Study of 19th Century Reporting and Its Effect on the Spiritualist Movement" will explore sensationalism's effect on the Spiritualist movement in the United States from the mid-19th century through the 20th century. The project explores how sensationalism contributed to the movement's progression, which peaked during the 19th century due to the population's rising numbers and literacy rates. Newspapers are the bulk of the primary sources captured for the project, which depict the unique language and imagery that sensationalism brought forth, intriguing and influencing the interest of society, which directly impacted society's intrigue and interest in Spiritualism. Many scholarly interpretations of why the movement caught on so quickly and dissipated are discussed further in the project. The newspapers are in tandem with Spiritualism's historiography – its rise, fall, and resurgence in the 19th and 20th centuries. Scholarly secondary sources have been chosen to support the vast historiography of the movement. The newspapers will concur with the argument that the preferred choice of language and imagery that sensationalism became known for directly impacted the timeline and historiography of the movement. News agencies had a grasp and influence on society's attention and fascination – Crompton Burton calls it "sophisticated manipulation" - and this project strives to prove that these entities and tactics directly impacted their acceptance and eventual disinterest.Master ArtsHistoryCollege of Online and Continuing Educatio

    Extensive rewiring of the EGFR network in colorectal cancer cells expressing transforming levels of KRASG13D

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    Protein-protein-interaction networks (PPINs) organize fundamental biological processes, but how oncogenic mutations impact these interactions and their functions at a network-level scale is poorly understood. Here, we analyze how a common oncogenic KRAS mutation (KRASG13D) affects PPIN structure and function of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) network in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. Mapping >6000 PPIs shows that this network is extensively rewired in cells expressing transforming levels of KRASG13D (mtKRAS). The factors driving PPIN rewiring are multifactorial including changes in protein expression and phosphorylation. Mathematical modelling also suggests that the binding dynamics of low and high affinity KRAS interactors contribute to rewiring. PPIN rewiring substantially alters the composition of protein complexes, signal flow, transcriptional regulation, and cellular phenotype. These changes are validated by targeted and global experimental analysis. Importantly, genetic alterations in the most extensively rewired PPIN nodes occur frequently in CRC and are prognostic of poor patient outcomes.This work was supported by European Union FP7 Grant No. 278568 “PRIMES” and Science Foundation Ireland Investigator Program Grant 14/IA/2395 to W.K. B.K. is supported by SmartNanoTox (Grant no. 686098), NanoCommons (Grant no. 731032), O.R. by MSCA-IF-2016 SAMNets (Grant no. 750688). D.M. is supported by Science Foundation Ireland Career Development award 15-CDA-3495. I.J. is supported by the Canada Research Chair Program (CRC #225404), Krembil Foundation, Ontario Research Fund (GL2-01-030 and #34876), Natural Sciences Research Council (NSERC #203475), Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI #225404, #30865), and IBM. O.S. is supported by ERC investigator Award ColonCan 311301 and CRUK. I.S. is supported by the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute (#703889), Genome Canada via Ontario Genomics (#9427 & #9428), Ontario Research fund (ORF/ DIG-501411 & RE08-009), Consortium QuĂ©bĂ©cois sur la DĂ©couverte du MĂ©dicament (CQDM Quantum Leap) & Brain Canada (Quantum Leap), and CQDM Explore and OCE (#23929). T.C. was supported by a Teagasc Walsh Fellowshi

    High-affinity CD8 variants enhance the sensitivity of pMHCI antigen recognition via low-affinity TCRs

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    The recognition of cell surface presented peptide-Major Histocompatibility Complex Class I (pMHCI) molecules by CD8 T-cells involves cooperative binding of the T-cell receptor (TCR) and CD8 co-receptor. CD8 T-cell antigen specificity is conferred by the TCR, whilst CD8 acts to stabilize the TCR/pMHCI complex and enhance T-cell antigen sensitivity. Earlier work has shown that the sensitivity of antigen recognition can be regulated in vitro by altering the strength of the pMHCI/CD8 interaction. Here, we characterize two CD8 variants with an enhanced affinity for MHCI that remains below the affinity threshold at which non-specific activation is observed. In model systems, expression of these CD8 variants preferentially enhanced pMHCI antigen recognition in the context of low-affinity TCRs. When combined with MHCI-restricted TCRs in primary CD4 T-cells, high affinity CD8 variants could improve T-cell functionality, without loss of antigen specificity. In primary CD8 T-cells, the introduction of high affinity CD8 enhanced T-cell activation compared to endogenous CD8 expression only, although we observed that the introduction of transgenic wild-type CD8 into primary CD8 T-cells also resulted in a similar T-cell effector function enhancement. Collectively, these findings could provide a generically applicable and immediately translatable strategy to augment the therapeutic efficacy of clinically relevant TCRs, which are already being delivered alongside wild-type CD8

    An investigation into aripiprazole's partial D(2) agonist effects within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during working memory in healthy volunteers

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    Rationale: Working memory impairments in schizophrenia have been attributed to dysfunction of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) which in turn may be due to low DLPFC dopamine innervation. Conventional antipsychotic drugs block DLPFC D2 receptors, and this may lead to further dysfunction and working memory impairments. Aripiprazole is a D2 receptor partial agonist hypothesised to enhance PFC dopamine functioning, possibly improving working memory. Objectives: We probed the implications of the partial D2 receptor agonist actions of aripiprazole within the DLPFC during working memory. Investigations were carried out in healthy volunteers to eliminate confounds of illness or medication status. Aripiprazole’s prefrontal actions were compared with the D2/5-HT2A blocker risperidone to separate aripiprazole’s unique prefrontal D2 agonist actions from its serotinergic and striatal D2 actions that it shares with risperidone. Method: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design was implemented. Participants received a single dose of either 5 mg aripiprazole, 1 mg risperidone or placebo before performing the n-back task whilst undergoing fMRI scanning. Results: Compared with placebo, the aripiprazole group demonstrated enhanced DLPFC activation associated with a trend for improved discriminability (d’) and speeded reaction times. In contrast to aripiprazole’s neural effects, the risperidone group demonstrated a trend for reduced DLPFC recruitment. Unexpectedly, the risperidone group demonstrated similar effects to aripiprazole on d’ and additionally had reduced errors of commission compared with placebo. Conclusion: Aripiprazole has unique DLPFC actions attributed to its prefrontal D2 agonist action. Risperidone’s serotinergic action that results in prefrontal dopamine release may have protected against any impairing effects of its prefrontal D2 blockade

    Oral abstracts 3: RA Treatment and outcomesO13. Validation of jadas in all subtypes of juvenile idiopathic arthritis in a clinical setting

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    Background: Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS) is a 4 variable composite disease activity (DA) score for JIA (including active 10, 27 or 71 joint count (AJC), physician global (PGA), parent/child global (PGE) and ESR). The validity of JADAS for all ILAR subtypes in the routine clinical setting is unknown. We investigated the construct validity of JADAS in the clinical setting in all subtypes of JIA through application to a prospective inception cohort of UK children presenting with new onset inflammatory arthritis. Methods: JADAS 10, 27 and 71 were determined for all children in the Childhood Arthritis Prospective Study (CAPS) with complete data available at baseline. Correlation of JADAS 10, 27 and 71 with single DA markers was determined for all subtypes. All correlations were calculated using Spearman's rank statistic. Results: 262/1238 visits had sufficient data for calculation of JADAS (1028 (83%) AJC, 744 (60%) PGA, 843 (68%) PGE and 459 (37%) ESR). Median age at disease onset was 6.0 years (IQR 2.6-10.4) and 64% were female. Correlation between JADAS 10, 27 and 71 approached 1 for all subtypes. Median JADAS 71 was 5.3 (IQR 2.2-10.1) with a significant difference between median JADAS scores between subtypes (p < 0.01). Correlation of JADAS 71 with each single marker of DA was moderate to high in the total cohort (see Table 1). Overall, correlation with AJC, PGA and PGE was moderate to high and correlation with ESR, limited JC, parental pain and CHAQ was low to moderate in the individual subtypes. Correlation coefficients in the extended oligoarticular, rheumatoid factor negative and enthesitis related subtypes were interpreted with caution in view of low numbers. Conclusions: This study adds to the body of evidence supporting the construct validity of JADAS. JADAS correlates with other measures of DA in all ILAR subtypes in the routine clinical setting. Given the high frequency of missing ESR data, it would be useful to assess the validity of JADAS without inclusion of the ESR. Disclosure statement: All authors have declared no conflicts of interest. Table 1Spearman's correlation between JADAS 71 and single markers DA by ILAR subtype ILAR Subtype Systemic onset JIA Persistent oligo JIA Extended oligo JIA Rheumatoid factor neg JIA Rheumatoid factor pos JIA Enthesitis related JIA Psoriatic JIA Undifferentiated JIA Unknown subtype Total cohort Number of children 23 111 12 57 7 9 19 7 17 262 AJC 0.54 0.67 0.53 0.75 0.53 0.34 0.59 0.81 0.37 0.59 PGA 0.63 0.69 0.25 0.73 0.14 0.05 0.50 0.83 0.56 0.64 PGE 0.51 0.68 0.83 0.61 0.41 0.69 0.71 0.9 0.48 0.61 ESR 0.28 0.31 0.35 0.4 0.6 0.85 0.43 0.7 0.5 0.53 Limited 71 JC 0.29 0.51 0.23 0.37 0.14 -0.12 0.4 0.81 0.45 0.41 Parental pain 0.23 0.62 0.03 0.57 0.41 0.69 0.7 0.79 0.42 0.53 Childhood health assessment questionnaire 0.25 0.57 -0.07 0.36 -0.47 0.84 0.37 0.8 0.66 0.4

    Multiple novel prostate cancer susceptibility signals identified by fine-mapping of known risk loci among Europeans

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    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous common prostate cancer (PrCa) susceptibility loci. We have fine-mapped 64 GWAS regions known at the conclusion of the iCOGS study using large-scale genotyping and imputation in 25 723 PrCa cases and 26 274 controls of European ancestry. We detected evidence for multiple independent signals at 16 regions, 12 of which contained additional newly identified significant associations. A single signal comprising a spectrum of correlated variation was observed at 39 regions; 35 of which are now described by a novel more significantly associated lead SNP, while the originally reported variant remained as the lead SNP only in 4 regions. We also confirmed two association signals in Europeans that had been previously reported only in East-Asian GWAS. Based on statistical evidence and linkage disequilibrium (LD) structure, we have curated and narrowed down the list of the most likely candidate causal variants for each region. Functional annotation using data from ENCODE filtered for PrCa cell lines and eQTL analysis demonstrated significant enrichment for overlap with bio-features within this set. By incorporating the novel risk variants identified here alongside the refined data for existing association signals, we estimate that these loci now explain ∌38.9% of the familial relative risk of PrCa, an 8.9% improvement over the previously reported GWAS tag SNPs. This suggests that a significant fraction of the heritability of PrCa may have been hidden during the discovery phase of GWAS, in particular due to the presence of multiple independent signals within the same regio

    Finishing the euchromatic sequence of the human genome