253 research outputs found

    The double-facing foreign relations function of the executive and its self-enforcing obligation to comply with international law

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    How does the international Rule of Law apply to constrain the conduct of the Executive within a constitutional State that adopts a dualist approach to the reception of international law? This paper argues that, so far from being inconsistent with the concept of the Rule of Law, the Executive within a dualist constitution has a self-enforcing obligation to abide by the obligations of the State under international law. This is not dependent on Parliament’s incorporation of treaty obligations into domestic law. It is the correlative consequence of the allocation to the Executive of the power to conduct foreign relations. The paper develops this argument in response to recent debate in the United Kingdom on whether Ministers have an obligation to comply with international law–a reference that the Government removed from the Ministerial Code. It shows that such an obligation is consistent with both four centuries of the practice of the British State and with principle

    Populism, the Pandemic & Prospects for International Law

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    Populism has fatally weakened the world’s ability to respond to COVID-19, by undermining the capacity of the structures and mechanisms of international law to address the pandemic. The pandemic has exposed as a fallacy a key tenet of populism – to protect the ‘people’ of a nation from external forces, including international law. In fact international law, through the principle of self-determination, enshrines the ability of peoples to determine their own political organization. But this does not preclude agreement at the international level on matters of common interest to humanity as a whole that require community action. The prevention of infectious disease is just such a case, which states have long agreed could not remain solely the preserve of national polities, but requires a common international response. This paper, placing the current crisis in light of the development of international health law, critically examines the response of key populist governments to COVID-19 in order to address the larger issue of the implications of populism for the fate of international law

    Anomalies of ac driven solitary waves with internal modes: Nonparametric resonances induced by parametric forces

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    We study the dynamics of kinks in the ϕ4\phi^4 model subjected to a parametric ac force, both with and without damping, as a paradigm of solitary waves with internal modes. By using a collective coordinate approach, we find that the parametric force has a non-parametric effect on the kink motion. Specifically, we find that the internal mode leads to a resonance for frequencies of the parametric driving close to its own frequency, in which case the energy of the system grows as well as the width of the kink. These predictions of the collective coordinate theory are verified by numerical simulations of the full partial differential equation. We finally compare this kind of resonance with that obtained for non-parametric ac forces and conclude that the effect of ac drivings on solitary waves with internal modes is exactly the opposite of their character in the partial differential equation.Comment: To appear in Phys Rev

    Simultaneous model-based clustering and visualization in the Fisher discriminative subspace

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    Clustering in high-dimensional spaces is nowadays a recurrent problem in many scientific domains but remains a difficult task from both the clustering accuracy and the result understanding points of view. This paper presents a discriminative latent mixture (DLM) model which fits the data in a latent orthonormal discriminative subspace with an intrinsic dimension lower than the dimension of the original space. By constraining model parameters within and between groups, a family of 12 parsimonious DLM models is exhibited which allows to fit onto various situations. An estimation algorithm, called the Fisher-EM algorithm, is also proposed for estimating both the mixture parameters and the discriminative subspace. Experiments on simulated and real datasets show that the proposed approach performs better than existing clustering methods while providing a useful representation of the clustered data. The method is as well applied to the clustering of mass spectrometry data

    Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens

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    EHP is a publication of the U.S. government. Publication of EHP lies in the public domain and is therefore without copyright. Research articles from EHP may be used freely; however, articles from the News section of EHP may contain photographs or figures copyrighted by other commercial organizations and individuals that may not be used without obtaining prior approval from both the EHP editors and the holder of the copyright. Use of any materials published in EHP should be acknowledged (for example, "Reproduced with permission from Environmental Health Perspectives") and a reference provided for the article from which the material was reproduced.Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention.Supported by EU Contract BMH4-CT96-0314

    Engaging Undergraduates in Science Research: Not Just About Faculty Willingness.

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    Despite the many benefits of involving undergraduates in research and the growing number of undergraduate research programs, few scholars have investigated the factors that affect faculty members' decisions to involve undergraduates in their research projects. We investigated the individual factors and institutional contexts that predict faculty members' likelihood of engaging undergraduates in their research project(s). Using data from the Higher Education Research Institute's 2007-2008 Faculty Survey, we employ hierarchical generalized linear modeling to analyze data from 4,832 science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) faculty across 194 institutions to examine how organizational citizenship behavior theory and social exchange theory relate to mentoring students in research. Key findings show that faculty who work in the life sciences and those who receive government funding for their research are more likely to involve undergraduates in their research project(s). In addition, faculty at liberal arts or historically Black colleges are significantly more likely to involve undergraduate students in research. Implications for advancing undergraduate research opportunities are discussed

    Discovery and Characterization of 2-Anilino-4- (Thiazol-5-yl)Pyrimidine Transcriptional CDK Inhibitors as Anticancer Agents

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    The main difficulty in the development of ATP antagonist kinase inhibitors is target specificity, since the ATP-binding motif is present in many proteins. We introduce a strategy that has allowed us to identify compounds from a kinase inhibitor library that block the cyclin-dependent kinases responsible for regulating transcription, i.e., CDK7 and especially CDK9. The screening cascade employs cellular phenotypic assays based on mitotic index and nuclear p53 protein accumulation. This permitted us to classify compounds into transcriptional, cell cycle, and mitotic inhibitor groups. We describe the characterization of the transcriptional inhibitor class in terms of kinase inhibition profile, cellular mode of action, and selectivity for transformed cells. A structural selectivity rationale was used to optimize potency and biopharmaceutical properties and led to the development of a transcriptional inhibitor, 3,4-dimethyl-5-[2-(4-piperazin-1-yl-phenylamino)-pyrimidin-4-yl]-3H-thiazol-2-one, with anticancer activity in animal models

    Lung cancer diagnosed following an emergency admission: exploring patient and carer perspectives on delay in seeking help

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    Purpose Compared to others, patients diagnosed with lung cancer following an emergency, unplanned admission to hospital (DFEA) have more advanced disease and poorer prognosis. Little is known about DFEA patients’ beliefs about cancer and its symptoms or about their help-seeking behaviours prior to admission. Methods As part of a larger single-centre, prospective mixed-methods study conducted in one University hospital, we undertook qualitative interviews with patients DFEA and their carers to obtain their understanding of symptoms and experiences of trying to access healthcare services before admission to hospital. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Framework analysis was employed. Results Thirteen patients and 10 carers plus 3 bereaved carers took part in interviews. Three patient/carer dyads were interviewed together. Participants spoke about their symptoms and why they did not seek help sooner. They described complex and nuanced experiences. Some (n = 12) had what they recalled as the wrong symptoms for lung cancer and attributed them either to a pre-existing condition or to ageing. In other cases (n = 9), patients or carers realised with hindsight that their symptoms were signs of lung cancer, but at the time had made other attributions to account for them. In some cases (n = 3), a sudden onset of symptoms was reported. Some GPs (n = 6) were also reported to have made incorrect attributions about cause. Conclusion Late diagnosis meant that patients DFEA needed palliative support sooner after diagnosis than patients not DFEA. Professionals and lay people interpret health and illness experiences differently

    Resonances in the dynamics of ϕ4\phi^4 kinks perturbed by ac forces

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    We study the dynamics of ϕ4\phi^4 kinks perturbed by an ac force, both with and without damping. We address this issue by using a collective coordinate theory, which allows us to reduce the problem to the dynamics of the kink center and width. We carry out a careful analysis of the corresponding ordinary differential equations, of Mathieu type in the undamped case, finding and characterizing the resonant frequencies and the regions of existence of resonant solutions. We verify the accuracy of our predictions by numerical simulation of the full partial differential equation, showing that the collective coordinate prediction is very accurate. Numerical simulations for the damped case establish that the strongest resonance is the one at half the frequency of the internal mode of the kink. In the conclusion we discuss on the possible relevance of our results for other systems, especially the sine-Gordon equation. We also obtain additional results regarding the equivalence between different collective coordinate methods applied to this problem.Comment: 23 pages, 7 figures, REVTeX, accepted for publication in Phys. Rev.
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