19,292 research outputs found

    Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

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    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel

    New Q-ball Solutions in Gauge-Mediation, Affleck-Dine Baryogenesis and Gravitino Dark Matter

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    Affleck-Dine (AD) baryogenesis along a d=6 flat direction in gauge-mediated supersymmetry-breaking (GMSB) models can produce unstable Q-balls which naturally have field strength similar to the messenger scale. In this case a new kind of Q-ball is formed, intermediate between gravity-mediated and gauge-mediated type. We study in detail these new Q-ball solutions, showing how their properties interpolate between standard gravity-mediated and gauge-mediated Q-balls as the AD field becomes larger than the messenger scale. It is shown that E/Q for the Q-balls can be greater than the nucleon mass but less than the MSSM-LSP mass, leading to Q-ball decay directly to Standard Model fermions with no MSSM-LSP production. More significantly, if E/Q is greater than the MSSM-LSP mass, decaying Q-balls can provide a natural source of non-thermal MSSM-LSPs, which can subsequently decay to gravitino dark matter without violating nucleosynthesis constraints. The model therefore provides a minimal scenario for baryogenesis and gravitino dark matter in the gauge-mediated MSSM, requiring no new fields.Comment: 13 pages, 9 figures. Some corrections and additional discussion. Version published in JCA

    Online television library: organization and content browsing for general users

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    This paper describes the organisational and playback features of Físchlár, a digital video library that allows users to record, browse and watch television programmes online. Programmes that can be watched and recorded are organised by personal recommendations, genre classifications, name and other attributes for access by general television users. Motivations and interactions of users with online television libraries are outlined and they are also supported by personalised library access, categorised programmes, a combined player browser with content viewing history and content marks. The combined player browser supports a user who watches a programme on different occasions in a non-sequential order

    The composition of corotating energetic particle streams

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    The relative abundances of 1.5 to 23 MeV/nucleon ions in corotating nucleon streams were compared with ion abundances in particle events associated with solar flares and with solar and solar wind abundances. He/O and C/O ratios were found to be a factor of the order two to three times greater in corotating streams than in flare associated events. The distribution of H/He ratios in corotating streams was found to be much narrower and of lower average value than in flare associated events. H/He in corotating energetic particle streams compared favorably both in lack of variability and numerical value to H/He in high speed solar wind plasma streams. This comparison suggested that the source population for the corotating energetic particles was the solar wind

    Thermomechanical behavior of plasma-sprayed ZrO2-Y2O3 coatings influenced by plasticity, creep and oxidation

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    Thermocycling of ceramic-coated turbomachine components produces high thermomechanical stresses that are mitigated by plasticity and creep but aggravated by oxidation, with residual stresses exacerbated by all three. These residual stresses, coupled with the thermocyclic loading, lead to high compressive stresses that cause the coating to spall. A ceramic-coated gas path seal is modeled with consideration given to creep, plasticity, and oxidation. The resulting stresses and possible failure modes are discussed

    Transient intensity changes of cosmic rays beyond the heliospheric termination shock as observed at Voyager 1

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    This paper continues our studies of temporal variations of cosmic rays beyond the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) using Voyager 1 (V1) data when V1 was beyond 94 AU. This new study utilizes cosmic ray protons and electrons of several energies. Notable transient decreases of 5–50% are observed in galactic cosmic ray nuclei and electrons at V1 shortly after similar decreases are observed at Voyager 2 (V2) still inside the HTS. These decreases at V1 appear to be related to the large solar events in September 2005 and December 2006 and the resulting outward moving interplanetary shock. These two large interplanetary shocks were the largest observed at V2 after V1 crossed the HTS at the end of 2004. They were observed at V2 just inside the HTS at 2006.16 and 2007.43 providing timing markers for V1. From the timing of the intensity decreases observed at V1 as the shocks first reach the HTS and then later reach V1 itself, we can estimate the shock speed beyond the HTS to be between 240 and 300 km s^(−1) in both cases. From the timing of the decreases observed when the shock first reaches the HTS and then several months later encounters the heliopause, we can estimate the heliosheath thickness to be 31 ± 4 and 37 ± 6 AU, respectively, for the two sequences of three decreases seen at V1. These values, along with the distances to the HTS that are determined, give distances from the Sun to the heliopause of 121 ± 4 and 124 ± 6 AU, respectively

    Focussed palmtop information access combining starfield displays and profile-based recommendations

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    This paper presents two palmtop applications: Taeneb CityGuide and Taeneb ConferenceGuide. Both applications are centred around Starfield displays on palmtop computers - this provides fast, dynamic access to information on a small platform. The paper describes the applications focussing on this novel palmtop information access method and on the user-profiling aspect of the CityGuide, where restaurants are recommended to users based on both the match of restaurant type to the users' observed previous interactions and the rating given by reviewers with similar observed preferences

    At Voyager 1 Starting on about August 25, 2012 at a Distance of 121.7 AU From the Sun, a Sudden Disappearance of Anomalous Cosmic Rays and an Unusually Large Sudden Increase of Galactic Cosmic Ray H and He Nuclei and Electron Occurred

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    At the Voyager 1 spacecraft in the outer heliosphere, after a series of complex intensity changes starting at about May 8th, the intensities of both anomalous cosmic rays (ACR) and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) changed suddenly and decisively on August 25th (121.7 AU from the Sun). The ACR started the intensity decrease with an initial e-folding rate of intensity decrease of ~1 day. Within a matter of a few days, the intensity of 1.9-2.7 MeV protons and helium nuclei had decreased to less than 0.1 of their previous value and after a few weeks, corresponding to the outward movement of V1 by ~0.1 AU, these intensities had decreased by factors of at least 300-500 and are now lower than most estimates of the GCR spectrum for these lower energies and also at higher energies. The decrease was accompanied by large rigidity dependent anisotropies in addition to the extraordinary rapidity of the intensity changes. Also on August 25th the GCR protons, helium and heavier nuclei as well as electrons increased suddenly with the intensities of electrons reaching levels ~30-50% higher than observed just one day earlier. This increase for GCR occurred over ~1 day for the lowest rigidity electrons, and several days for the higher rigidity nuclei of rigidity ~0.5-1.0 GV. After reaching these higher levels the intensities of the GCR of all energies from 2 to 400 MeV have remained essentially constant with intensity levels and spectra that may represent the local GCR. These intensity changes will be presented in more detail in this, and future articles, as this story unfolds.Comment: 13 Pages, 5 Figure

    Termination shock particle spectral features

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    Spectral features of energetic H ions accelerated at the termination shock may be evidence of two components. At low energies the energy spectrum is ~E^(–1.55), with break at ~0.4 MeV to E^(–2.2). A second component appears above ~1 MeV with a spectrum of E^(–1.27) with a break at ~3.2 MeV. Even though the intensities upstream are highly variable, the same spectral break energies are observed, suggesting that these are durable features of the source spectrum. The acceleration processes for the two components may differ, with the lower energy component serving as the injection source for diffusive shock acceleration of the higher energy component. Alternatively, the spectral features may result from the energy dependence of the diffusion tensor that affects the threshold for diffusive shock acceleration

    Voyager observations of galactic and anomalous cosmic rays in the helioshealth

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    Anomalous cosmic rays display large temporal variations at the time and location where Voyager 1 (V1) crossed the heliospheric termination shock (2004.86) (94AU, 34°N). On a short time scale (3 months) there was a large decrease produced by a series of merged interaction regions (MIR), the first of which was associated with the intense Oct./Nov. 2003 solar events. On a longer time scale there is a remarkable correlation between changes in the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) intensity and those of 10–56 MeV/n ACR He and 30–56 MeV H extending over a 4.3 year period with the GCRs exhibiting their expected behavior over this part of the 11 and 22 year solar activity and heliomagnetic cycle. The relative changes in the ACR and GCR are the same for both the short term and long term variations. The comparative V1/V2 ACR and GCR spectra in the foreshock and heliosheath indicate that at this time most of the higher energy ACRs are not being accelerated near V1 but must have their source region elsewhere — possibly near the equatorial region of the TS as was suggested in our first paper on the TS crossing (1)