10 research outputs found

    Understanding the margin squeeze: differentiation in fitness-related traits between central and trailing edge populations of Corallina officinalis

    Get PDF
    Assessing population responses to climate-related environmental change is key to understanding the adaptive potential of the species as a whole. Coralline algae are critical components of marine shallow water ecosystems where they function as important ecosystem engineers. Populations of the calcifying algae Corallina officinalis from the center (southern UK) and periphery (northern Spain) of the North Atlantic species natural distribution were selected to test for functional differentiation in thermal stress response. Physiological measurements of calcification, photosynthesis, respiration, growth rates, oxygen, and calcification evolution curves were performed using closed cell respirometry methods. Species identity was genetically confirmed via DNA barcoding. Through a common garden approach, we identified distinct vulnerability to thermal stress of central and peripheral populations. Southern populations showed a decrease in photosynthetic rate under environmental conditions of central locations, and central populations showed a decline in calcification rates under southern conditions. This shows that the two processes of calcification and photosynthesis are not as tightly coupled as previously assumed. How the species as whole will react to future climatic changes will be determined by the interplay of local environmental conditions and these distinct population adaptive traits.South African Research Chairs Initiative (SARChI) IF/01413/2014/CP1217/CT0004 University of Portsmouthinfo:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    State of the Science for Kidney Disorders in Phelan-McDermid Syndrome: UPK3A, FBLN1, WNT7B, and CELSR1 as Candidate Genes

    Get PDF
    Phelan-McDermid syndrome (PMS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by chromosomal rearrangements affecting the 22q13.3 region or by SHANK3 pathogenic variants. The scientific literature suggests that up to 40% of individuals with PMS have kidney disorders, yet little research has been conducted on the renal system to assess candidate genes attributed to these disorders. Therefore, we first conducted a systematic review of the literature to identify kidney disorders in PMS and then pooled the data to create a cohort of individuals to identify candidate genes for renal disorders in PMS. We found 7 types of renal disorders reported: renal cysts, renal hypoplasia or agenesis, hydronephrosis, vesicoureteral reflux, kidney dysplasia, horseshoe kidneys, and pyelectasis. Association analysis from the pooled data from 152 individuals with PMS across 22 articles identified three genomic regions spanning chromosomal bands 22q13.31, 22q13.32, and 22q13.33, significantly associated with kidney disorders. We propose UPK3A, FBLN1, WNT7B, and CELSR1, located from 4.5 Mb to 5.5 Mb from the telomere, as candidate genes. Our findings support the hypothesis that genes included in this region may play a role in the pathogenesis of kidney disorders in PMS

    PCNA directs type 2 RNase H activity on DNA replication and repair substrates

    Get PDF
    Ribonuclease H2 is the major nuclear enzyme degrading cellular RNA/DNA hybrids in eukaryotes and the sole nuclease known to be able to hydrolyze ribonucleotides misincorporated during genomic replication. Mutation in RNASEH2 causes Aicardi–Goutières syndrome, an auto-inflammatory disorder that may arise from nucleic acid byproducts generated during DNA replication. Here, we report the crystal structures of Archaeoglobus fulgidus RNase HII in complex with PCNA, and human PCNA bound to a C-terminal peptide of RNASEH2B. In the archaeal structure, three binding modes are observed as the enzyme rotates about a flexible hinge while anchored to PCNA by its PIP-box motif. PCNA binding promotes RNase HII activity in a hinge-dependent manner. It enhances both cleavage of ribonucleotides misincorporated in DNA duplexes, and the comprehensive hydrolysis of RNA primers formed during Okazaki fragment maturation. In addition, PCNA imposes strand specificity on enzyme function, and by localizing RNase H2 and not RNase H1 to nuclear replication foci in vivo it ensures that RNase H2 is the dominant RNase H activity during nuclear replication. Our findings provide insights into how type 2 RNase H activity is directed during genome replication and repair, and suggest a mechanism by which RNase H2 may suppress generation of immunostimulatory nucleic acids

    Are SNHU Waterways Impaired by Excess Chloride Due to Road Salt Application?

    No full text
    The chloride ion found in road salt accumulates in water bodies and has negative impacts on aquatic life and ecosystems. Amphibians experience developmental and behavioral changes at high chloride concentrations. Ecosystems can also be impacted – too much salt can cause water density changes, soil contamination, harm to algae, and harm to mammals. The road salt that is applied in colder climates is effective at ensuring the safety of drivers, but little attention is focused on the consequences of applying large amounts of road salt. To understand how much road salt is present in water bodies in southern New Hampshire, and to understand the relationship between urbanization and salinization, the conductivity of water samples was measured in an area immediately adjacent to the campus roadways and another remote location. The results are compared to meteorological data and impairment threshold values

    Understanding the margin squeeze: Differentiation in fitness-related traits between central and trailing edge populations of Corallina officinalis

    No full text
    Assessing population responses to climate‐related environmental change is key to understanding the adaptive potential of the species as a whole. Coralline algae are critical components of marine shallow water ecosystems where they function as important ecosystem engineers. Populations of the calcifying algae Corallina officinalis from the centre (southern UK) and periphery (northern Spain) of the North Atlantic species natural distribution were selected to test for functional differentiation in thermal stress response. Physiological measurements of calcification, photosynthesis, respiration, growth rates, oxygen and calcification evolution curves were performed using closed cell respirometry methods. Species identity was genetically confirmed via DNA barcoding. Through a common garden approach, we identified distinct vulnerability to thermal stress of central and peripheral populations. Southern populations showed a decrease in photosynthetic rate under environmental conditions of central locations and central populations showed a decline in calcification rates under southern conditions. This shows that the two processes of calcification and photosynthesis are not as tightly coupled as previously assumed. How the species as whole will react to future climatic changes will be determined by the interplay of local environmental conditions and these distinct population adaptive traits

    Crystal structures of the two major aggrecan degrading enzymes, ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5

    No full text
    Aggrecanases are now believed to be the principal proteinases responsible for aggrecan degradation in osteoarthritis. Given their potential as a drug target, we solved crystal structures of the two most active human aggrecanase isoforms, ADAMTS4 and ADAMTS5, each in complex with bound inhibitor and one wherein the enzyme is in apo form. These structures show that the unliganded and inhibitor-bound enzymes exhibit two essentially different catalytic-site configurations: an autoinhibited, nonbinding, closed form and an open, binding form. On this basis, we propose that mature aggrecanases exist as an ensemble of at least two isomers, only one of which is proteolytically active

    Healing The Past By Nurturing The Future: A qualitative systematic review and meta-synthesis of pregnancy, birth and early postpartum experiences and views of parents with a history of childhood maltreatment

    No full text
    corecore