56 research outputs found

    Detector development for a neutrino detector with combined optical and charge readout in room temperature liquids

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    A room temperature liquid scintillator time projection chamber has the potential to give both ne grained tracking and calorimetry, analogous to liquid argon, only without the cryogenic infrastructure. This type of detector would be invaluable as a cost effective, large volume detector for use in neutrino physics. This motivates the search for candidate liquids with both excellent charge transport properties and optical properties. This work presents results from tests of five dielectric room temperature liquid scintillators; Di isopropyl naphthalene, Phenyl xylyl ethane, Linear alkyl benzene, Mono isopropyl biphenyl, and Mono isopropyl naphthalene, whose charge transport properties are investigated for the first time. The results are also presented from room temperature liquids Tetramethyl pentane, and Cyclopentane, whose optical properties have not previously been investigated. The liquids tested have shown favourable properties, although none of the above liquids has been found to have both charge transport and scintillation light at a suitable level for use in a neutrino detector

    SBND: Status of the Fermilab Short-Baseline Near Detector

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    SBND (Short-Baseline Near Detector) will be a 112 ton liquid argon TPC neutrino detector located 110m from the target of the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam. SBND, together with the MicroBooNE and ICARUS-T600 detectors at 470m and 600m, respectively, make up the Fermilab Short-Baseline Neutrino (SBN) Program. SBN will search for new physics in the neutrino sector by testing the sterile neutrino hypothesis in the 1 eV 2 mass-squared region with unrivaled sensitivity. SBND will measure the un-oscillated beam flavor composition to enable precision searches for neutrino oscillations via both electron neutrino appearance and muon neutrino disappearance in the far detectors. With a data sample of millions of neutrino interactions (both electron and muon neutrinos), SBND will also perform detailed studies of the physics of neutrino-argon interactions, even in rare channels. In addition, SBND plays an important role in an on-going R & D effort within neutrino physics to develop the LArTPC technology toward many-kiloton-scale detectors for next generation long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiments. The design details and current status of the detector is presented here

    Search for heavy neutral leptons decaying into muon-pion pairs in the MicroBooNE detector

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    This document was prepared by the MicroBooNE Collaboration using the resources of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab), a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, HEP User Facility. Fermilab is managed by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC (FRA), acting under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11359. MicroBooNE is supported by the following: the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Offices of High Energy Physics and Nuclear Physics; the U.S. National Science Foundation; the Swiss National Science Foundation; the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC), part of the United Kingdom Research and Innovation; and The Royal Society (United Kingdom). Additional support for the laser calibration system and cosmic ray tagger was provided by the Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern, Switzerland.We present upper limits on the production of heavy neutral leptons (HNLs) decaying to μπ pairs using data collected with the MicroBooNE liquid-argon time projection chamber (TPC) operating at Fermilab. This search is the first of its kind performed in a liquid-argon TPC. We use data collected in 2017 and 2018 corresponding to an exposure of 2.0×1020 protons on target from the Fermilab Booster Neutrino Beam, which produces mainly muon neutrinos with an average energy of ≈800  MeV. HNLs with higher mass are expected to have a longer time of flight to the liquid-argon TPC than Standard Model neutrinos. The data are therefore recorded with a dedicated trigger configured to detect HNL decays that occur after the neutrino spill reaches the detector. We set upper limits at the 90% confidence level on the element |Uμ4|2 of the extended PMNS mixing matrix in the range |Uμ4|2<(6.6–0.9)×10−7 for Dirac HNLs and |Uμ4|2<(4.7–0.7)×10−7 for Majorana HNLs, assuming HNL masses between 260 and 385 MeV and |Ue4|2=|Uτ4|2=0.Fermilab is managed by Fermi Research Alliance, LLC (FRA), acting under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH1135

    The IDENTIFY study: the investigation and detection of urological neoplasia in patients referred with suspected urinary tract cancer - a multicentre observational study

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    Objective To evaluate the contemporary prevalence of urinary tract cancer (bladder cancer, upper tract urothelial cancer [UTUC] and renal cancer) in patients referred to secondary care with haematuria, adjusted for established patient risk markers and geographical variation. Patients and Methods This was an international multicentre prospective observational study. We included patients aged ≥16 years, referred to secondary care with suspected urinary tract cancer. Patients with a known or previous urological malignancy were excluded. We estimated the prevalence of bladder cancer, UTUC, renal cancer and prostate cancer; stratified by age, type of haematuria, sex, and smoking. We used a multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression to adjust cancer prevalence for age, type of haematuria, sex, smoking, hospitals, and countries. Results Of the 11 059 patients assessed for eligibility, 10 896 were included from 110 hospitals across 26 countries. The overall adjusted cancer prevalence (n = 2257) was 28.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 22.3–34.1), bladder cancer (n = 1951) 24.7% (95% CI 19.1–30.2), UTUC (n = 128) 1.14% (95% CI 0.77–1.52), renal cancer (n = 107) 1.05% (95% CI 0.80–1.29), and prostate cancer (n = 124) 1.75% (95% CI 1.32–2.18). The odds ratios for patient risk markers in the model for all cancers were: age 1.04 (95% CI 1.03–1.05; P < 0.001), visible haematuria 3.47 (95% CI 2.90–4.15; P < 0.001), male sex 1.30 (95% CI 1.14–1.50; P < 0.001), and smoking 2.70 (95% CI 2.30–3.18; P < 0.001). Conclusions A better understanding of cancer prevalence across an international population is required to inform clinical guidelines. We are the first to report urinary tract cancer prevalence across an international population in patients referred to secondary care, adjusted for patient risk markers and geographical variation. Bladder cancer was the most prevalent disease. Visible haematuria was the strongest predictor for urinary tract cancer

    A human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) clade A vaccine in clinical trials: stimulation of HIV-specific T-cell responses by DNA and recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) vaccines in humans.

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    The immunogenicities of candidate DNA- and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA)-vectored human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccines were evaluated on their own and in a prime-boost regimen in phase I clinical trials in healthy uninfected individuals in the United Kingdom. Given the current lack of approaches capable of inducing broad HIV-neutralizing antibodies, the pTHr.HIVA DNA and MVA.HIVA vaccines focus solely on the induction of cell-mediated immunity. The vaccines expressed a common immunogen, HIVA, which consists of consensus HIV-1 clade A Gag p24/p17 proteins fused to a string of clade A-derived epitopes recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Volunteers' fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells were tested for HIV-specific responses in a validated gamma interferon enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay using four overlapping peptide pools across the Gag domain and three pools of known CTL epitopes present in all of the HIVA protein. Both the DNA and the MVA vaccines alone and in a DNA prime-MVA boost combination were safe and induced HIV-specific responses in 14 out of 18, seven out of eight and eight out of nine volunteers, respectively. These results are very encouraging and justify further vaccine development