348 research outputs found

    Characterizing Waiting Room Time, Treatment Time, and Boarding Time in the Emergency Department Using Quantile Regression

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    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:813–823 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency MedicineThe objective was to characterize service completion times by patient, clinical, temporal, and crowding factors for different phases of emergency care using quantile regression (QR).A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1-year visit data from four academic emergency departments (EDs; N  = 48,896–58,316). From each ED’s clinical information system, the authors extracted electronic service information (date and time of registration; bed placement, initial contact with physician, disposition decision, ED discharge, and disposition status; inpatient medicine bed occupancy rate); patient demographics (age, sex, insurance status, and mode of arrival); and clinical characteristics (acuity level and chief complaint) and then used the service information to calculate patients’ waiting room time, treatment time, and boarding time, as well as the ED occupancy rate. The 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles of each phase of care were estimated as a function of patient, clinical, temporal, and crowding factors using multivariate QR. Accuracy of models was assessed by comparing observed and predicted service completion times and the proportion of observations that fell below the predicted 10th, 50th, and 90th percentiles.At the 90th percentile, patients experienced long waiting room times (105–222 minutes), treatment times (393–616 minutes), and boarding times (381–1,228 minutes) across the EDs. We observed a strong interaction effect between acuity level and temporal factors (i.e., time of day and day of week) on waiting room time at all four sites. Acuity level 3 patients waited the longest across the four sites, and their waiting room times were most influenced by temporal factors compared to other acuity level patients. Acuity level and chief complaint were important predictors of all phases of care, and there was a significant interaction effect between acuity and chief complaint. Patients with a psychiatric problem experienced the longest treatment times, regardless of acuity level. Patients who presented with an injury did not wait as long for an ED or inpatient bed. Temporal factors were strong predictors of service completion time, particularly waiting room time. Mode of arrival was the only patient characteristic that substantially affected waiting room time and treatment time. Patients who arrived by ambulance had shorter wait times but longer treatment times compared to those who did not arrive by ambulance. There was close agreement between observed and predicted service completion times at the 10th, 50th, and 90th percentile distributions across the four EDs.Service completion times varied significantly across the four academic EDs. QR proved to be a useful method for estimating the service completion experience of not only typical ED patients, but also the experience of those who waited much shorter or longer. Building accurate models of ED service completion times is a critical first step needed to identify barriers to patient flow, begin the process of reengineering the system to reduce variability, and improve the timeliness of care provided.Peer Reviewedhttp://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/79320/1/j.1553-2712.2010.00812.x.pd

    Rapid 13(c) urea breath test to identify Helicobacter pylori infection in emergency department patients with upper abdominal pain

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    Introduction: In emergency department (ED) patients with upper abdominal pain, management includes ruling out serious diseases and providing symptomatic relief. One of the major causes of upper abdominal pain is an ulcer caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which can be treated and cured with antibiotics. We sought to estimate the prevalence of H. pylori infection in symptomatic patients using a convenience sample at a single urban academic ED and demonstrate the feasibility of ED-based testing. Methods: We prospectively enrolled patients with a chief complaint of pain or discomfort in the upper abdomen for 1 year from February 2011 until February 2012 at a single academic urban ED. Enrolled subjects were tested for H. pylori using a rapid point of care 13C Urea Breath Test (UBT) [Exalenz Bioscience]. We compared patient characteristics between those who tested positive versus negative for the disease. Results: A total of 205 patients with upper abdominal pain were tested over 12 months, and 24% (95% confidence interval: 19% to 30%) tested positive for H. pylori. Black subjects were more likely to test positive than white subjects (28% v. 6%, P \u3c 0.001). Other factors, such as age and sex, were not different between the 2 groups. Conclusion: In our ED, H. pylori infection was present in 1 in 4 patients with epigastric pain, and testing with a UBT was feasible. Further study is needed to determine the risk factors associated with infection, the prevalence of H. pylori in other EDs, the effect of the test on ED length of stay and the cost-effectiveness of an ED-based test-and-treat strategy. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(3):278–282.

    Application of the Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention

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    The Carolina Framework for Cervical Cancer Prevention describes 4 main causes of cervical cancer incidence: human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, lack of screening, screening errors, and not receiving follow-up care. We present 2 applications of the Carolina Framework in which we identify high-need counties in North Carolina and generate recommendations for improving prevention efforts

    Sexual health interventions delivered to participants by mobile technology: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

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    BACKGROUND: The use of mobile technologies to prevent STIs is recognised as a promising approach worldwide; however, evidence has been inconclusive, and the field has developed rapidly. With about 1 million new STIs a day globally, up-to-date evidence is urgently needed. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of mobile health interventions delivered to participants for preventing STIs and promoting preventive behaviour. METHODS: We searched seven databases and reference lists of 49 related reviews (January 1990-February 2020) and contacted experts in the field. We included randomised controlled trials of mobile interventions delivered to adolescents and adults to prevent sexual transmission of STIs. We conducted meta-analyses and assessed risk of bias and certainty of evidence following Cochrane guidance. RESULTS: After double screening 6683 records, we included 22 trials into the systematic review and 20 into meta-analyses; 18 trials used text messages, 3 used smartphone applications and 1 used Facebook messages as delivery modes. The certainty of evidence regarding intervention effects on STI/HIV occurrence and adverse events was low or very low. There was moderate certainty of evidence that in the short/medium-term text messaging interventions had little or no effect on condom use (standardised mean differences (SMD) 0.02, 95% CI -0.09 to 0.14, nine trials), but increased STI/HIV testing (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.41 to 2.36, seven trials), although not if the standard-of-care control already contained an active text messaging component (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.47, two trials). Smartphone application messages also increased STI/HIV testing (risk ratio 1.40, 95% CI 1.22 to 1.60, subgroup analysis, two trials). The effects on other outcomes or of social media or blended interventions is uncertain due to low or very low certainty evidence. CONCLUSIONS: Text messaging interventions probably increase STI/HIV testing but not condom use in the short/medium term. Ongoing trials will report the effects on biological and other outcomes

    Expression of Drug Targets in Patients Treated with Sorafenib, Carboplatin and Paclitaxel

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    Introduction: Sorafenib, a multitarget kinase inhibitor, targets members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and VEGFR kinases. Here we assessed the association between expression of sorafenib targets and biomarkers of taxane sensitivity and response to therapy in pre-treatment tumors from patients enrolled in ECOG 2603, a phase III comparing sorafenib, carboplatin and paclitaxel (SCP) to carboplatin, paclitaxel and placebo (CP). Methods: Using a method of automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) of in situ protein expression, we quantified expression of VEGF-R2, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R3, FGF-R1, PDGF-RÎČ, c-Kit, B-Raf, C-Raf, MEK1, ERK1/2, STMN1, MAP2, EB1 and Bcl-2 in pretreatment specimens from 263 patients. Results: An association was found between high FGF-R1 and VEGF-R1 and increased progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in our combined cohort (SCP and CP arms). Expression of FGF-R1 and VEGF-R1 was higher in patients who responded to therapy ((CR+PR) vs. (SD+PD+ un-evaluable)). Conclusions: In light of the absence of treatment effect associated with sorafenib, the association found between FGF-R1 and VEGF-R1 expression and OS, PFS and response might reflect a predictive biomarker signature for carboplatin/paclitaxel-based therapy. Seeing that carboplatin and pacitaxel are now widely used for this disease, corroboration in another cohort might enable us to improve the therapeutic ratio of this regimen. © 2013 Jilaveanu et al

    Wild bird-associated Campylobacter jejuni isolates are a consistent source of human disease, in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

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    The contribution of wild birds as a source of human campylobacteriosis was investigated in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom (UK) over a 10 year period. The probable origin of human Campylobacter jejuni genotypes, as described by multilocus sequence typing, was estimated by comparison with reference populations of isolates from farm animals and five wild bird families, using the STRUCTURE algorithm. Wild bird-attributed isolates accounted for between 476 (2.1%) and 543 (3.5%) cases annually. This proportion did not vary significantly by study year (P = 0.934) but varied seasonally, with wild bird-attributed genotypes comprising a greater proportion of isolates during warmer compared with cooler months (P = 0.003). The highest proportion of wild bird-attributed illness occurred in August (P < 0.001), with a significantly lower proportion in November (P = 0.018). Among genotypes attributed to specific groups of wild birds, seasonality was most apparent for Turdidae-attributed isolates, which were absent during cooler, winter months. This study is consistent with some wild bird species representing a persistent source of campylobacteriosis, and contributing a distinctive seasonal pattern to disease burden. If Oxfordshire is representative of the UK as a whole in this respect, these data suggest that the national burden of wild bird-attributed isolates could be in the order of 10,000 annually

    Longitudinal Bioluminescence Imaging of Primary Versus Abdominal Metastatic Tumor Growth in Orthotopic Pancreatic Tumor Models in NSG Mice

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    Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to develop and validate noninvasive bioluminescence imaging methods for differentially monitoring primary and abdominal metastatic tumor growth in mouse orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. Methods: A semiautomated maximum entropy segmentation method was implemented for the primary tumor region of interest, and a rule-based method for manually drawing a region of interest for the abdominal metastatic region was developed for monitoring tumor growth in orthotopic models of pancreatic cancer. The 2 region-of-interest methods were validated by having 2 observers independently segment Panc-1 tumors, and the results were compared with the number of mesenteric lymph node nodules and histopathologic assessment of liver metastases. The findings were extended to orthotopic tumors of the more metastatic MIA PaCa-2 and AsPC-1 cells where separate groups of animals were implanted with different numbers of cells. Results: The results demonstrated that the segmentation methods were highly reliable, reproducible, and robust and allowed statistically significant discrimination in the growth rates of primary and abdominal metastatic tumors of different cell lines implanted with different numbers of cells. Conclusions: The present results demonstrate that primary tumors and abdominal metastatic foci in orthotopic pancreatic cancer models can be reliably quantified separately and noninvasively over time with bioluminescence imaging

    Thymus transplantation for complete DiGeorge syndrome: European experience

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    Background: Thymus transplantation is a promising strategy for the treatment of athymic complete DiGeorge syndrome (cDGS). Methods: Twelve patients with cDGS were transplanted with allogeneic cultured thymus. Objective: To confirm and extend the results previously obtained in a single centre. Results: Two patients died of pre-existing viral infections without developing thymopoeisis and one late death occurred from autoimmune thrombocytopaenia. One infant suffered septic shock shortly after transplant resulting in graft loss and the need for a second transplant. Evidence of thymopoeisis developed from 5-6 months after transplantation in ten patients. The median (range) of circulating naïve CD4 counts (x10663 /L) were 44(11-440) and 200(5-310) at twelve and twenty-four months post-transplant and T-cell receptor excision circles were 2238 (320-8807) and 4184 (1582 -24596) per106 65 T-cells. Counts did not usually reach normal levels for age but patients were able to clear pre-existing and later acquired infections. At a median of 49 months (22-80), eight have ceased prophylactic antimicrobials and five immunoglobulin replacement. Histological confirmation of thymopoeisis was seen in seven of eleven patients undergoing biopsy of transplanted tissue including five showing full maturation through to the terminal stage of Hassall body formation. Autoimmune regulator (AIRE) expression was also demonstrated. Autoimmune complications were seen in 7/12 patients. In two, early transient autoimmune haemolysis settled after treatment and did not recur. The other five suffered ongoing autoimmune problems including: thyroiditis (3); haemolysis (1), thrombocytopaenia (4) and neutropenia (1). Conclusions: This study confirms the previous reports that thymus transplantation can reconstitute T cells in cDGS but with frequent autoimmune complications in survivors

    DNA sequence level analyses reveal potential phenotypic modifiers in a large family with psychiatric disorders

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    Psychiatric disorders are a group of genetically related diseases with highly polygenic architectures. Genome-wide association analyses have made substantial progress towards understanding the genetic architecture of these disorders. More recently, exome- and whole-genome sequencing of cases and families have identified rare, high penetrant variants that provide direct functional insight. There remains, however, a gap in the heritability explained by these complementary approaches. To understand how multiple genetic variants combine to modify both severity and penetrance of a highly penetrant variant, we sequenced 48 whole genomes from a family with a high loading of psychiatric disorder linked to a balanced chromosomal translocation. The (1;11)(q42;q14.3) translocation directly disrupts three genes: DISC1, DISC2, DISC1FP and has been linked to multiple brain imaging and neurocognitive outcomes in the family. Using DNA sequence-level linkage analysis, functional annotation and population-based association, we identified common and rare variants in GRM5 (minor allele frequency (MAF) > 0.05), PDE4D (MAF > 0.2) and CNTN5 (MAF < 0.01) that may help explain the individual differences in phenotypic expression in the family. We suggest that whole-genome sequencing in large families will improve the understanding of the combined effects of the rare and common sequence variation underlying psychiatric phenotypes

    Ethical, legal, and social issues in the Earth BioGenome Project.

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    The Earth BioGenome Project (EBP) is an audacious endeavor to obtain whole-genome sequences of representatives from all eukaryotic species on Earth. In addition to the project's technical and organizational challenges, it also faces complicated ethical, legal, and social issues. This paper, from members of the EBP's Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues (ELSI) Committee, catalogs these ELSI concerns arising from EBP. These include legal issues, such as sample collection and permitting; the applicability of international treaties, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Nagoya Protocol; intellectual property; sample accessioning; and biosecurity and ethical issues, such as sampling from the territories of Indigenous peoples and local communities, the protection of endangered species, and cross-border collections, among several others. We also comment on the intersection of digital sequence information and data rights. More broadly, this list of ethical, legal, and social issues for large-scale genomic sequencing projects may be useful in the consideration of ethical frameworks for future projects. While we do not-and cannot-provide simple, overarching solutions for all the issues raised here, we conclude our perspective by beginning to chart a path forward for EBP's work