700 research outputs found


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    A poster describing botanical, chemical, and pharmaceutical properties for the chamomile plant

    Reclaiming social work? an evaluation of systemic units as an approach to delivering children’s services

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    This report presents the findings of an evaluation of the systemic unit model as an approach to the delivery of Children‘s Social Services. The systemic unit model has sometimes been referred to as the ―Hackney Model‖ or ―Reclaiming Social Work‖ (Cross et al, 2010; Munro, 2011a; Trowler and Goodman, 2012). The evaluation is an in-depth comparative description of practice and the factors shaping it in three local authorities. One of the authorities used the systemic unit model; the other two authorities differed but both had a more conventional model for the structure of services. This involved individual allocation to social workers who received supervision from a line manager

    Engagement of Parents in Child-focused Iinterventions

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    Background: Parent engagement in interventions for their children is considered necessary to the success of many allied health services. Currently, however, the concept of engagement is poorly defined and minimally understood. While literature on engagement is emerging, a coordinated overview of the topic from related disciplines is notably absent. Without this, it is difficult to translate insights of parent engagement into practical strategies for clinicians. The aim of this review is to systematically search the literature to identify factors relevant to parent engagement in child-focused interventions. Methods/Design: This review will follow a systematised literature review procedure, with a focus on comprehensive searching as well as application of quality appraisal and analysis steps. A search of five electronic databases will be undertaken, alongside citation tracking and hand searching of literature. Articles will be screened for relevance in a two-stage process (exclusion by title/abstract and exclusion at full text review), aligned with inclusion and exclusion criteria consistent with the review question. Included literature will be assessed for quality using a tool relevant to the study methods (quantitative or qualitative). Data analysis will include narrative synthesis for quantitative studies, and thematic synthesis for qualitative studies. Discussion: This review will explore literature on parent engagement across related child-focused interventions, to better define the concept of engagement and identify factors which contribute to parents being engaged in the treatment of their children. This information may guide further research on engagement of parents, and support practitioners working to develop interventions that maximally engage parents for optimal child outcomes

    Neutral genomic microevolution of a recently emerged pathogen, salmonella enterica serovar agona

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    Salmonella enterica serovar Agona has caused multiple food-borne outbreaks of gastroenteritis since it was first isolated in 1952. We analyzed the genomes of 73 isolates from global sources, comparing five distinct outbreaks with sporadic infections as well as food contamination and the environment. Agona consists of three lineages with minimal mutational diversity: only 846 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have accumulated in the non-repetitive, core genome since Agona evolved in 1932 and subsequently underwent a major population expansion in the 1960s. Homologous recombination with other serovars of S. enterica imported 42 recombinational tracts (360 kb) in 5/143 nodes within the genealogy, which resulted in 3,164 additional SNPs. In contrast to this paucity of genetic diversity, Agona is highly diverse according to pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), which is used to assign isolates to outbreaks. PFGE diversity reflects a highly dynamic accessory genome associated with the gain or loss (indels) of 51 bacteriophages, 10 plasmids, and 6 integrative conjugational elements (ICE/IMEs), but did not correlate uniquely with outbreaks. Unlike the core genome, indels occurred repeatedly in independent nodes (homoplasies), resulting in inaccurate PFGE genealogies. The accessory genome contained only few cargo genes relevant to infection, other than antibiotic resistance. Thus, most of the genetic diversity within this recently emerged pathogen reflects changes in the accessory genome, or is due to recombination, but these changes seemed to reflect neutral processes rather than Darwinian selection. Each outbreak was caused by an independent clade, without universal, outbreak-associated genomic features, and none of the variable genes in the pan-genome seemed to be associated with an ability to cause outbreaks

    The tree of genomes: An empirical comparison of genome-phylogeny reconstruction methods

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    <p>Abstract</p> <p>Background</p> <p>In the past decade or more, the emphasis for reconstructing species phylogenies has moved from the analysis of a single gene to the analysis of multiple genes and even completed genomes. The simplest method of scaling up is to use familiar analysis methods on a larger scale and this is the most popular approach. However, duplications and losses of genes along with horizontal gene transfer (HGT) can lead to a situation where there is only an indirect relationship between gene and genome phylogenies. In this study we examine five widely-used approaches and their variants to see if indeed they are more-or-less saying the same thing. In particular, we focus on Conditioned Reconstruction as it is a method that is designed to work well even if HGT is present.</p> <p>Results</p> <p>We confirm a previous suggestion that this method has a systematic bias. We show that no two methods produce the same results and most current methods of inferring genome phylogenies produce results that are significantly different to other methods.</p> <p>Conclusion</p> <p>We conclude that genome phylogenies need to be interpreted differently, depending on the method used to construct them.</p

    A randomized controlled trial of training in Motivational Interviewing for child protection.

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    There has been interest in developing more evidence-based approaches to child and family social work in the UK in recent years. This study examines the impact of a skills development package of training and supervision in Motivational Interviewing (MI) on the skills of social workers and the engagement of parents through a randomized controlled trial. All workers in one local authority were randomly assigned to receive the package (n = 28) or control (n = 33). Families were then randomized to trained (n = 67) or untrained (n = 98) workers. Family meetings with the worker shortly after allocation were evaluated for MI skill. Research interviews gathered data including the WAI. Follow-up interviews 20 weeks later repeated the WAI, and other outcome measures including Goal Attainment Scaling (GAS) and rating of family life. Between group analysis found statistically significant difference in MI skills, though these were not substantial (2.49 in control, 2.91 MI trained, p = .049). There was no statistically significant difference between groups in any other outcome measures. The package of training and supervision did not create sufficient increase in MI skills to influence engagement or outcomes. Implications for understanding the relationship between skills, engagement and organizational change are discussed

    The role of China in the global spread of the current cholera pandemic

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    Epidemics and pandemics of cholera, a severe diarrheal disease, have occurred since the early 19th century and waves of epidemic disease continue today. Cholera epidemics are caused by individual, genetically monomorphic lineages of Vibrio cholerae: the ongoing seventh pandemic, which has spread globally since 1961, is associated with lineage L2 of biotype El Tor. Previous genomic studies of the epidemiology of the seventh pandemic identified three successive sub-lineages within L2, designated waves 1 to 3, which spread globally from the Bay of Bengal on multiple occasions. However, these studies did not include samples from China, which also experienced multiple epidemics of cholera in recent decades. We sequenced the genomes of 71 strains isolated in China between 1961 and 2010, as well as eight from other sources, and compared them with 181 published genomes. The results indicated that outbreaks in China between 1960 and 1990 were associated with wave 1 whereas later outbreaks were associated with wave 2. However, the previously defined waves overlapped temporally, and are an inadequate representation of the shape of the global genealogy. We therefore suggest replacing them by a series of tightly delineated clades. Between 1960 and 1990 multiple such clades were imported into China, underwent further microevolution there and then spread to other countries. China was thus both a sink and source during the pandemic spread of V. cholerae, and needs to be included in reconstructions of the global patterns of spread of cholera

    Control of Salivary Secretion by Nitric Oxide and Its Role in Neuroimmunomodulation

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    Abstract: In many in vivo systems exposure to endotoxins (LPS) leads to the co‐induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase‐2 (COX‐2), which is important to the regulation of the function of different systems during infection. In submandibular glands (SMG) neural (n)NOS is localized in neural terminals and in striated, granular convoluted and excretory ducts, endothelial (e) NOS in vascular endothelium and ducts, and iNOS in macrophages and in tubules and ducts. In normal adult male rats, injection of an inhibitor of NOS decreased the stimulated salivary secretion and a donor of NO potentiated it, indicating that NO exerts a stimulatory role. A single high dose of LPS (5 mg/kg, i.p.) induced an increase in NOS activity measured by the 14C‐citrulline method, increased PGE content almost 100% as measured by RIA, and blocked stimulated salivary secretion. The administration of a specific iNOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), with LPS not only decreased NOS activity but significantly decreased PGE content, indicating that NO triggered the activation of COX‐2. LPS increased conversion of labeled arachidonate to prostaglandins (PGs) showing that COX was induced. Since a PGE1 analogue blocked stimulated salivation, the LPS‐induced inhibition of salivation is probably due to release of PGs. Therefore, the use of inhibitors of iNOS and COX‐2 could be very useful to increase salivation during infection since saliva has antimicrobial actions.Fil: Besuhli, Valeria. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Oficina de CoordinaciĂłn Administrativa Houssay. Centro de Estudios FarmacolĂłgicos y BotĂĄnicos. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Centro de Estudios FarmacolĂłgicos y BotĂĄnicos; ArgentinaFil: Lomniczi, A.. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de OdontologĂ­a; ArgentinaFil: ElverdĂ­n, Juan Carlos. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de OdontologĂ­a; ArgentinaFil: Suburo, Angela Maria. Universidad Austral; ArgentinaFil: Faletti, Alicia Graciela. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Oficina de CoordinaciĂłn Administrativa Houssay. Centro de Estudios FarmacolĂłgicos y BotĂĄnicos. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Centro de Estudios FarmacolĂłgicos y BotĂĄnicos; ArgentinaFil: Franchi, Ana Maria. Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones CientĂ­ficas y TĂ©cnicas. Oficina de CoordinaciĂłn Administrativa Houssay. Centro de Estudios FarmacolĂłgicos y BotĂĄnicos. Universidad de Buenos Aires. Facultad de Medicina. Centro de Estudios FarmacolĂłgicos y BotĂĄnicos; ArgentinaFil: McCann, Samuel M.. State University of Louisiana; Estados Unido

    A long and abundant non-coding RNA in Lactobacillus salivarius

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    Lactobacillus salivarius, found in the intestinal microbiota of humans and animals, is studied as an example of the sub-dominant intestinal commensals that may impart benefits upon their host. Strains typically harbour at least one megaplasmid that encodes functions contributing to contingency metabolism and environmental adaptation. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) transcriptomic analysis of L. salivarius strain UCC118 identified the presence of a novel unusually abundant long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) encoded by the megaplasmid, and which represented more than 75 % of the total RNA-seq reads after depletion of rRNA species. The expression level of this 520 nt lncRNA in L. salivarius UCC118 exceeded that of the 16S rRNA, it accumulated during growth, was very stable over time and was also expressed during intestinal transit in a mouse. This lncRNA sequence is specific to the L. salivarius species; however, among 45 L. salivarius genomes analysed, not all (only 34) harboured the sequence for the lncRNA. This lncRNA was produced in 27 tested L. salivarius strains, but at strain-specific expression levels. High-level lncRNA expression correlated with high megaplasmid copy number. Transcriptome analysis of a deletion mutant lacking this lncRNA identified altered expression levels of genes in a number of pathways, but a definitive function of this new lncRNA was not identified. This lncRNA presents distinctive and unique properties, and suggests potential basic and applied scientific developments of this phenomenon