88 research outputs found

    The role of stereotactic body radiation therapy in oligometastatic colorectal cancer

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    Rationale: Regorafenib is the new standard third-line therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the reported 1-year overall survival rate does not exceed 25%. Patient concerns: A 55-year-old man affected by mCRC, treated with regorafenib combined with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), showing a durable response. Interventions: After 6 months of regorafenib, a PET/CT scan revealed a focal uptake in a solid lung nodule which was treated with SBRT, whereas continuing regorafenib administration. Fourteen months later, the patient had further progression in a parasternal lymph node, but treatment with regorafenib was continued. The regorafenib-associated side effects, such us the hand-foot syndrome, were favorable managed by reducing the dose from 160 to 120 mg/day. Outcomes: Patient-reported outcome was characterized by a progression-free survival of approximately 3 years. Lessons: in presence of oligometastatic progression, a local SBRT while retaining the same systemic therapy may be a better multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, disease progression is no longer an absolute contraindication for continuing the regorafenib treatment

    Can IDO activity predict primary resistance to anti-PD-1 treatment in NSCLC?

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    BACKGROUND: Immune checkpoint inhibitors have revolutionized the treatment paradigm of highly lethal malignancies like advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), demonstrating long-term tumour control and extended patient survival. Unfortunately, only 25-30% of patients experience a durable benefit, while the vast majority demonstrate primary or acquired resistance. Recently, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) activity has been proposed as a possible mechanism of resistance to anti-PD-1 treatment leading to an immunosuppressive microenvironment. METHODS: Pre-treatment serum concentrations of tryptophan (trp) and kynurenine (kyn) were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in NSCLC patients treated with second-line nivolumab. The IDO activity was expressed with kyn/trp ratio. The associations between kyn/trp ratio and early progression, performance status (PS), age, sex, brain metastases, pleural effusion, progression free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed using Spearman test and Mann-Whitney test. RESULTS: Twenty-six NSCLC patients were included in our study; 14 of them (54%) presented early progression (< 3 months) to nivolumab treatment. The median value of kyn/trp ratio was 0.06 µg/ml and the median value of quinolinic acid was 68.45 ng/ml. A significant correlation between early progression and higher kyn/trp ratio and quinolinic acid concentration was observed (p = 0.017 and p = 0.005, respectively). Patients presenting lower values of kyn/trp ratio and quinolinic acid levels showed longer PFS (median PFS not reached versus 3 months; HR: 0.3; p = 0.018) and OS (median OS not reached vs 3 months; HR: 0.18; p = 0.0005). CONCLUSION: IDO activity, expressed as kyn/trp ratio, is associated with response to immunotherapy; in particular, higher kyn/trp ratio could predict resistance to anti-PD-1 treatment. These preliminary results suggest the possibility of using anti-PD-1 plus IDO inhibitor in those patients with high level of kyn/trp ratio

    Drug resistance of BRAF-mutant melanoma: Review of up-to-date mechanisms of action and promising targeted agents

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    Abstract Melanoma onset and progression are associated with a high variety of activating mutations in the MAPK-pathway, most frequently involving BRAF (35–45%) and NRAS (15–25%) genes, but also c-KIT and PTEN. Targeted therapies with BRAF and MEK inhibitors showed promising results over the past years, but it is known that most responses are temporary, and almost all of patients develop a tumor relapse within one year. Different drug-resistance mechanisms underlie the progression of disease and activation of both MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways. Therefore, in this article we reviewed the main studies about clinical effects of several target inhibitors, describing properly the most prominent mechanisms of both intrinsic and acquired resistance. Furthermore, suggestive strategies for overcoming drug resistance and the most recent alternative combination therapies to optimize the use of MAPK pathway inhibitors were also discussed

    Spider bites of medical significance in the mediterranean area: misdiagnosis, clinical features and management

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    Despite the disrepute spiders have had for centuries, their bite is a rare occurrence. In the Mediterranean area, only two of the numerous known species are considered of medical significance: Latrodectus tredecimguttatus and Loxosceles rufescens. Spider bites have no pathognomonic signs or symptoms, therefore most diagnoses are presumptive; a spider bite can only be diagnosed when a spider (seen at the time of the bite) is collected and identified by an expert, since most physicians and patients are unable to recognize a certain spider species or distinguish spiders from other arthropods. Skin lesions of uncertain etiology are too often attributed to spider bites. In most cases, these are actually skin and soft-tissue infections, allergic reactions, dermatoses etc. Misdiagnosing a wound as a spider bite can lead to delays in appropriate care, cause adverse or even fatal outcomes and have medical-legal implications. Concerningly, misinformation on spider bites also affects the medical literature and it appears there is lack of awareness on current therapeutic indications for verified bites

    Degradation rate of 5-fluorouracil in metastatic colorectal cancer. A new predictive outcome biomarker?

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    BACKGROUND: 5-FU based chemotherapy is the most common first line regimen used for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Identification of predictive markers of response to chemotherapy is a challenging approach for drug selection. The present study analyzes the predictive role of 5-FU degradation rate (5-FUDR) and genetic polymorphisms (MTHFR, TSER, DPYD) on survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Genetic polymorphisms of MTHFR, TSER and DPYD, and the 5-FUDR of homogenous patients with mCRC were retrospectively studied. Genetic markers and the 5-FUDR were correlated with clinical outcome. RESULTS: 133 patients affected by mCRC, treated with fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy from 2009 to 2014, were evaluated. Patients were classified into three metabolic classes, according to normal distribution of 5-FUDR in more than 1000 patients, as previously published: poor-metabolizer (PM) with 5-FU-DR ≤ 0,85 ng/ml/106 cells/min (8 pts); normal metabolizer with 0,85 < 5-FU-DR < 2,2 ng/ml/106 cells/min (119 pts); ultra-rapid metabolizer (UM) with 5-FU-DR ≥ 2,2 ng/ml/106 cells/min (6 pts). PM and UM groups showed a longer PFS respect to normal metabolizer group (14.5 and 11 months respectively vs 8 months; p = 0.029). A higher G3-4 toxicity rate was observed in PM and UM, respect to normal metabolizer (50% in both PM and UM vs 18%; p = 0.019). No significant associations between genes polymorphisms and outcomes or toxicities were observed. CONCLUSION: 5-FUDR seems to be significantly involved in predicting survival of patients who underwent 5-FU based CHT for mCRC. Although our findings require confirmation in large prospective studies, they reinforce the concept that individual genetic variation may allow personalized selection of chemotherapy to optimize clinical outcomes

    Combination therapy of high-dose rabeprazole plus metronomic capecitabine in advanced gastrointestinal cancer: a randomized phase II trial

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    Abstract: Background: In recent years, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been investigated at high-dose tomodulate tumormicroenvironment acidification thus restoring chemotherapeutic sensitivity. This is the first trial to study activity and safety of repurposing high dose rabeprazole combined with metronomic capecitabine (mCAP). Methods: A phase II study in which patients with gastrointestinal cancer, refractory to standard treatments, who had a life expectancy &gt;3 months, were blind randomized 1:1 to mCAP, 1500 mg/daily, continuously with or without rabeprazole 1.5 mg/kg bid, three days a week. The primary endpoint was 3-months progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints were clinical benefit (CB) and overall survival (OS). Safety and plasma concentrations of capecitabine and its metabolites (50-DFUR and 5-FU) were also evaluated. Results: Sixty-seven (median age 69 years; 63% male; 84% colorectal cancer, 76% ECOG-PS 1; 84% pretreated with two or more lines of chemotherapy) out of 90 patients screened for eligibility, were randomized to receive mCAP+rabeprazole (n = 32) vs. mCAP (n = 35). All patients were evaluable for response. No significant dierence between mCAP+rabeprazole vs. mCAP, in terms of 3-months PFS rate (HR = 1.43, 95%CI 0.53–3.85; p = 0.477), median PFS (HR = 1.22, 95%CI 0.75–2.00, p = 0.420), CB (RR = 0.85, 95%CI 0.29–2.44; p = 0.786) and median OS (HR = 0.89, 95%CI 0.54–1.48; p = 0.664) was observed. However, a 3-year OS rate of 10% and 12% was reported in the mCAP-rabeprazole and mCAP groups, respectively. Overall, no grade 3 or 4 toxicity occurred but grade 1 or 2 adverse event of any type were more frequently in the mCAP+rabeprazole group than in the mCAP (OR 2.83, 95%CI 1.03–7.79; p = 0.043). Finally, there was not statistically significant dierence in the plasma concentration of capecitabine and its metabolites between the two groups. Conclusions: Although the adjunct of high dose rabeprazole to mCAP was not shown to aect mCAP activity, as PPI are being investigated worldwide as drugs to be repositioned in cancer treatment and also considering the limited sample size as well as the favorable safety profile of the combination in the present study, further clinical investigations are desirable

    Multidisciplinary management of neuroendocrine neoplasia: a real-world experience from a referral center

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    Purpose: Multidisciplinary approach is widely advised for an effective care of patients with neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN). Since data on efficacy of multidisciplinary management of NENs patients in referral centers are scanty, this study aimed at analyzing the modality of presentation and clinical outcome of patients with NENs managed by a dedicated multidisciplinary team. Methods. In this prospective observational study, we included all consecutive new patients visiting the Sant'Andrea Hospital in Rome (ENETS-Center of Excellence) between January 2014 and June 2018. Results. A total of 195 patients were evaluated. The most frequent sites were pancreas (38.5%), small bowel (22%), and lung (9.7%). Median Ki67 was 3%. After the first visit at the center, additional radiological and/or nuclear medicine procedures were requested in 163 patients (83.6%), whereas histological data revision was advised in 84 patients (43.1%) (revision of histological slides: 27.7%, new bioptic sampling: 15.4%). After that, disease imaging staging and grading was modified in 30.7% and 17.9% of patients, respectively. Overall, a change in therapeutic management was proposed in 98 patients (50.3%). Conclusions. Multidisciplinary approach in a dedicated team may lead to change of disease imaging staging and grading in a significant proportion of patients. Enhancing referral routes to dedicated-NEN center should be promoted, since it may improve patients' clinical outcome
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