591 research outputs found

    Missing voices in rediscovering late Ottoman and early British Jerusalem

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    non peer-reviewedLooking at the vast and conflicting literature about Jerusalem, it soon becomes evident that there are gaps in the historiographic output. The city’s transition from Ottoman to British rule is one such omission: very little attention has been paid to that formative period. What are the reasons for this lack of interest? The relative scarcity of works dealing with this era is due to a number of factors, including a lack of political interest in this period, and an arbitrary division of history that fails to take into account both the changes and continuities in this transition. However, in the last decade a number of works were produced that focus on this period, significantly including local voices often overlooked in favor of Western sources only. A discussion of how historical literature on turn-of-the-century Jerusalem is moving forward will afford the opportunity for a reassessment of the field

    Antonio de la Cierva y Lewita: the Spanish consul in Jerusalem 1914-1920

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    non peer-reviewedIn September 1914 a young Spanish diplomat, arrived in Jerusalem- a few months afterwards he, began to record his experiences in Jerusalem, a city that was increasingly involved in the First World War due to the Ottoman alliance with Germany. His name was Antonio de la Cierva Conde de Ballobar

    Multivariate meta-analysis of QTL mapping studies

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    A large number of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for milk production and quality traits in dairy cattle has been reported in literature. The large amount of information available could be exploited by meta-analyses to draw more general conclusions from results obtained in different experimental conditions (animals, statistical methodologies). QTL meta-analyses have been carried out to estimate the distribution of QTL effects in livestock and to find consensus on QTL position. In this study, multivariate dimension reduction techniques are used to analyse a database of dairy cattle QTL published results, in order to extract latent variables able to characterise the research. A total of 92 papers by 72 authors were found on 25 scientific Journals for the period January 1995-February 2008. More than thirty parameters were picked up from the articles. To overcome the problem of different map location, the flanking markers were mapped on release 4.1 of the Bos taurus genome sequence (www.ensembl. org). Their position was retrieved from public databases and, when absent, was calculated in silico by blasting (http://blast.wustl.edu/) the markers’ nucleotide sequence against the genomic sequence. Records were discarded if flanking markers or P-values were not available. After these edits, the final archive consisted of 1,162 records. Seven selected variables were analysed both with the Factor Analysis (FA), combined with the varimax rotation technique, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). FA was able to explain 68% of the original variability with 3 latent factors: the first factor extracted was highly associated (factor loading of 0.98) to marker location along the chromosome and could be considered as a marker map index; the second factor showed factor loadings of 0.74 and 0.84 related to the variable number of animals involved and year of the experiment, respectively, and it can be regarded as an indicator of the dimension of the study; the third factor was correlated to the significance level of the statistical test (0.78), number of families (0.63), and, negatively, to the marker density (-0.43). It can be named as index of power of the experiment. Same patterns can be observed in the eigenvectors of PCA. Four PCs were able to explain about 80% of the original variance. The first two PCs basically underlined accurately the same structure found with the first two factors in FA, whereas PC3 and PC4 summarized the structure of F3. The score that each QTL gets on each Factor or PC could be useful to classify the original QTL records and make them more comparable once that the redundancy of information has been removed

    Linfocitose monoclonal de células B: uma breve revisão para clínicos gerais

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    Monoclonal B-cell lymphocytosis (MBL) is a recently described medical condition that displays biological similarities to the most common subtype of adult leukemia in the Western world, i.e. chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Diagnostic criteria have been published with the aim of differentiating between these two entities. The overall prevalence of MBL is at least 100 times higher than that of CLL, which indirectly suggests that MBL is not necessarily a pre-leukemic condition, although in some circumstances, CLL cases can really be preceded by MBL. In view of this high prevalence rate, general clinicians and even non-hematological specialists have a high chance of being faced with individuals with MBL in their routine clinical practice. MBL is classified as "clinical MBL", "population-screening MBL" and "atypical MBL" and the clinical management of affected individuals depends greatly on this differentiation. The present review provides a guide to diagnosing and following up MBL patients.A linfocitose monoclonal de células B (LMB) é uma condição médica recentemente descrita que exibe similaridades biológicas com o mais comum subtipo de leucemia em adultos de países ocidentais, qual seja, a leucemia linfocítica crônica (LLC). Critérios diagnósticos foram publicados com o intuito de separar as duas entidades. A prevalência global da LMB é pelo menos 100 vezes maior do que a da LLC, o que, indiretamente, sugere que a LMB não é necessariamente uma condição pré-leucêmica, embora, em algumas circunstâncias, casos de LLC possam realmente ser precedidos pela LMB. Em virtude dessa alta taxa de prevalência, clínicos gerais e mesmo outros especialistas não hematologistas têm grande chance de deparar-se com casos de LMB em suas rotinas clínicas. A LMB é classificada como "LMB clínica", "LMB de screening populacional" e "LMB atípica", sendo que o manuseio clínico dos indivíduos afetados depende substancialmente dessa diferenciação. A presente revisão fornece um guia para o diagnóstico e acompanhamento dos pacientes com LMB.Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP)Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq

    Alien shades of grey: New occurrences and relevant spread of Sciurus carolinensis in Italy

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    The eastern grey squirrel is listed among the worst invasive species throughout the world. This species of American origin is currently replacing the native Eurasian red squirrel in most of the Great Britain, as well as in parts of Ireland and Italy. It may debark trees and exert damages to woodlands and tree plantations. Therefore, its spread may be deleterious for biodiversity and environment, emphasising the need for a rapid detection in new areas of occurrence. In this work, we reported for the first time, the presence of new populations of this invasive species in Tuscany (Central Italy) and some updates and analyses regarding the status of this species in Veneto (North-Eastern Italy). Occurrences were collected through citizen-science contributory approach supported by photos, road-kills, and/or hair-tube sampling. Field investigations ad hoc were carried out in Veneto and Tuscany   to confirm the repeated reports in the surroundings of Arezzo and in the province of Siena. Although records can be possibly related to erratic or single individuals escaped from captivity, reproductive nuclei have also been detected in both regions, with the observations of juveniles and/or lactating females. The occurrence of the  species in these regions is still scarce and localised, but considering the surrounding favourable wooded habitats, a rapid removal of the animals would be required to prevent their spread

    Protección de menores con progenitores drogodependientes y modelo trigeneracional: un estudio de caso único

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    Introducción. Las hijas y los hijos de progenitores drogodependientes suelen ser objeto de denuncia a la autoridad judicial por negligencia, descuido o porque corren el riesgo de sufrir posibles daños en su desarrollo. El problema de la relación entre los progenitores que abusan de las sustancias tóxicas y sus hijas e hijos está representado por innumerables estudios sobre los factores de riesgo para las y los menores. Esto ha determinado en los operadores una mayor atención al desarrollo de estas niñas y estos niños y la necesidad de activar metodologías de trabajo eficaces. La necesidad de intervenir con prontitud para formular vías de ayuda y recuperación en equipos interdisciplinarios es el tema de reflexión de esta contribución. Método. El primer objetivo de la investigación fue la observación y el análisis cualitativo de unas decenas de casos tratados, a cargo de los servicios sociales con medidas de protección. En segundo lugar, verificar las metodologías de trabajo de los equipos sociosanitarios. Por último, mediante el seguimiento y la evaluación de los casos tratados. El modelo teórico que inspiró el estudio se refería a las investigaciones realizadas en los últimos 30 años sobre los tipos de familia de las personas con drogodependencias y el estudio de las relaciones intergeneracionales. Resultados. Los resultados de la investigación permitieron esbozar metodologías de trabajo y estrategias operativas, sobre cómo combinar la atención y la protección, cómo fomentar la colaboración interdisciplinaria y la colaboración interinstitucional entre los servicios que se ocupan de la atención y los que se ocupan de la protección de las niñas y los niños. A través del estudio y la lectura crítica de un "caso único", se esbozan estrategias de intervención, procedimientos y medidas de protección adecuadas y eficaces. Discusión. La realidad en la que se basa la investigación, presenta una fuerte demanda de intervenciones articuladas en el territorio, donde también juega un papel importante la búsqueda de familias de acogida con las que se pueda afrontar la emergencia. Los traslados y acogimientos se llevan a cabo a través de medidas promovidas por los servicios y activadas por los jueces con proyectos de protección que no siempre son fáciles para los diferentes equipos implicados. A menudo se generan conflictos relacionales entre las familias, los servicios y los abogados que deben ser debidamente mediados. Conclusiones. La investigación saca a la luz un área de interés relacionada con el uso del traslado y el acogimiento temporal de las niñas y los niños fuera de la familia nuclear cuando estos se encuentran en una situación de grave dificultad y perjuicio, a través del instrumento del acogimiento familiar y/o de las comunidades materno-filiales. La elección se hace partiendo de la base de que estas intervenciones pueden proteger a las niñas y a los niños pero también fomentar la recuperación de los progenitores

    Factors Affecting Linear Type Traits of Valdostana Cattle

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    Four composite and 22 individual linear type traits, measured between 1997 and 2012 on 33,206 Aosta Red Pied (ARP) and 19,551 Aosta Black Pied and Aosta Chestnut (ABP-CN) strains of Valdostana cattle, were used to investigate the non-genetic factors affecting morphological evaluation. Average values for type traits ranged from 2.81 (teat placement rear view and foot angle) to 3.34 (thinness) for ARP, and from 2.48 (teat placement side view) to 3.67 (udder depth) for ABP-CN. Results from the ANOVA showed significant effect of herd-year-classifier on type traits of both ARPand ABP-CN, and of days in milk and age at calving for almost all traits, with few exceptions. The model used in this study is a useful starting point to calculate genetic parameters for Valdostana cattle

    Hydrostructural setting of Riardo Plain: effects on Ferrarelle mineral water type

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    The exploitation of groundwater resources must always keep in account the geology and hydrogeological settings of the catchment basin for the sustainability of withdrawals, in order not to overexploit the aquifer. Especially, in the case of mineral water extraction, even more attention should be paid to understand what are the water-rock-gases interaction mechanisms, which allow obtaining a specific water chemistry. The case of Ferrarelle mineral water (western sector of Riardo Plain, Caserta) is particularly complex. Through the acquisition of a great amount of former geological and hydrogeological data and by new hydrogeological surveys, it has been possible to distinguish the aquifer levels, distinguishing four circulations over the Roccamonfina Volcano and in the Riardo Plain. The presence of volcanic and volcaniclastic deposits deriving from the Roccamonfina Volcano which cover a highlytectonized carbonate bedrock, allows the formation of two aquifers in hydraulic continuity. This mixing between the two aquifers allows, with the ascent of deep CO2 through faults in the carbonate bedrock, the formation of the typical chemical composition of the mineral water Ferrarelle. In the eastern sector of the plain, it is possible to distinguish the volcanic aquifer from the carbonate one, probably due to the presence of low permeability deposits

    Genetic correlations between type and test-day milk yield in small dual purpose cattle populations: the Aosta Red Pied breed as a case study.

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    This study aimed at estimating the relationships between linear type traits and milk production in the dual purpose Aosta Red Pied (ARP) cattle breed, by expressing type traits as factor scores with the same biological meaning of the individual traits. Factor analysis was applied to individual type traits for muscularity and udder of 32,275 first parity ARP cows, obtaining 3 factors scores for individual muscularity (F1), udder side (F2) and udder conformation (F3). Data from 169,008 test-day records of milk, fat and protein yield (kg), belonging to the first 3 lactations of 16,605 cows were also analyzed. After obtaining genetic parameters for both morphological factors and milk production traits through a series of AIREML single-trait models, bivariate analyses were performed on a dataset accounting for 201,283 records of 35,530 cows, to assess the phenotypic and genetic correlations among all factor scores and milk yield traits. The heritability estimates obtained proved to be moderate for both groups of traits, ranging from 0.132 (fat) to 0.314 (F1). Muscularity factor showed moderate and negative genetic correlations (ra) with udder size (-0.376) and udder conformation (0.214) factors. A low and negative ra was found between udder factors. Strong and positive ra were found among all the 3 milk production traits and F2 (ra ≥ 0.597). Negative ra with milk traits were obtained for both F1 and F3, ranging from -0.417 to -0.221. Phenotypic correlations resulted lower than the genetic ones, and sometimes close to zero. The antagonism between milk production and meat attitude traits suggests that great attention should be paid in assigning proper weight to the traits, comprising functional traits such as udder conformation, included in selection indices for the dual purpose breed. The ra obtained for factor scores are consistent with previous estimates for the corresponding individual type traits, and this confirms the possible use of factor analysis to improve type traits relevant to beef attitude
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