195 research outputs found

    A Novel Tool for the Absolute End-to-End Calibration of Fluorescence Telescopes -The XY-Scanner

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    AugerPrime Surface Detector Electronics

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    International audienceOperating since 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has led to major advances in our understanding of the ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. The latest findings have revealed new insights that led to the upgrade of the Observatory, with the primary goal of obtaining information on the primary mass of the most energetic cosmic rays on a shower-by-shower basis. In the framework of the upgrade, called AugerPrime, the 1660 water-Cherenkov detectors of the surface array are equipped with plastic scintillators and radio antennas, allowing us to enhance the composition sensitivity. To accommodate new detectors and to increase experimental capabilities, the electronics is also upgraded. This includes better timing with up-to-date GPS receivers, higher sampling frequency, increased dynamic range, and more powerful local processing of the data. In this paper, the design characteristics of the new electronics and the enhanced dynamic range will be described. The manufacturing and test processes will be outlined and the test results will be discussed. The calibration of the SD detector and various performance parameters obtained from the analysis of the first commissioning data will also be presented

    The number of muons measured in hybrid events detected by the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    Deep-Learning-Based Cosmic-Ray Mass Reconstruction Using the Water-Cherenkov and Scintillation Detectors of AugerPrime

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    At the highest energies, cosmic rays can be detected only indirectly by the extensive air showers they create upon interaction with the Earth\u27s atmosphere. While high-statistics measurements of the energy and arrival directions of cosmic rays can be performed with large surface detector arrays like the Pierre Auger Observatory, the determination of the cosmic-ray mass on an event-by-event basis is challenging. Meaningful physical observables in this regard include the depth of maximum of air-shower profiles, which is related to the mean free path of the cosmic ray in the atmosphere and the shower development, as well as the number of muons that rises with the number of nucleons in a cosmic-ray particle. In this contribution, we present an approach to determine both of these observables from combined measurements of water-Cherenkov detectors and scintillation detectors, which are part of the AugerPrime upgrade of the Observatory. To characterize the time-dependent signals of the two detectors both separately as well as in correlation to each other, we apply deep learning techniques. Transformer networks employing the attention mechanism are especially well-suited for this task. We present the utilized network concepts and apply them to simulations to determine the precision of the event-by-event mass reconstruction that can be achieved by the combined measurements of the depth of shower maximum and the number of muons

    Constraints on metastable superheavy dark matter coupled to sterile neutrinos with the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    International audienceDark matter particles could be superheavy, provided their lifetime is much longer than the age of the universe. Using the sensitivity of the Pierre Auger Observatory to ultra-high energy neutrinos and photons, we constrain a specific extension of the Standard Model of particle physics that meets the lifetime requirement for a superheavy particle by coupling it to a sector of ultra-light sterile neutrinos. Our results show that, for a typical dark coupling constant of 0.1, the mixing angle őłm\theta_m between active and sterile neutrinos must satisfy, roughly, őłm‚Č≤2.5√ó10‚ąí6(MX/109¬†GeV)‚ąí2\theta_m \lesssim 2.5\times 10^{-6}(M_X/10^9~\mathrm{GeV})^{-2} for a mass MXM_X of the dark-matter particle between 2.3√ó1082.3\times 10^8 and 1011¬†10^{11}~GeV

    Condition of Young Japanese Knotweed (<i>Reynoutria japonica</i> Houtt.) Offshoots in Response to Microwave Radiation of Their Rhizomes

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    Invasive Japanese knotweed is one of Poland‚Äôs most aggressive and difficult-to-control species. New methods of control are of utmost importance. This study aimed to analyze young knotweed offshoots‚Äô regeneration and physiological condition after treatment of their rhizomes with microwaves of high frequency. The fresh rhizomes were microwaved in the laboratory once for different times (from 5 to 60 s, interval 5 s). Next, in the greenhouse, the growth of offshoots and their biochemical state (spectrophotometry of leaves) were recorded in three measurement series. It was shown that the microwave treatment for 35 s directly destroys knotweed rhizomes of a diameter of 1‚Äď3 cm, so it does not produce new offsprings. The treatment times from 5‚Äď25 s delay offspring regeneration and growth and development of leaves. The leaves initiate the mechanisms of protection against microwave stress in offshoots grown from the rhizomes exposed to microwaves for 10 s (increase in the anthocyanin index) and the 5 or 20 s treatments (higher values of the photochemical reflectance index). Based on the effective dose (ED50) analysis, the threshold of harmful effects of microwaves on the growth and development of Reynoutria japonica rhizomes was assumed to be 17‚Äď19 s

    Search for Ultra-high-energy Photons from Gravitational Wave Sources with the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    International audienceA search for time-directional coincidences of ultra-high-energy (UHE) photons above 10 EeV with gravitational wave (GW) events from the LIGO/Virgo runs O1 to O3 is conducted with the Pierre Auger Observatory. Due to the distinctive properties of photon interactions and to the background expected from hadronic showers, a subset of the most interesting GW events is selected based on their localization quality and distance. Time periods of 1000 s around and 1 day after the GW events are analyzed. No coincidences are observed. Upper limits on the UHE photon fluence from a GW event are derived that are typically at ‚ąľ7 MeV cm‚ąí2^{‚ąí2} (time period 1000 s) and ‚ąľ35 MeV cm‚ąí2^{‚ąí2} (time period 1 day). Due to the proximity of the binary neutron star merger GW170817, the energy of the source transferred into UHE photons above 40 EeV is constrained to be less than 20% of its total GW energy. These are the first limits on UHE photons from GW sources

    A Catalog of the Highest-Energy Cosmic Rays Recorded During Phase I of Operation of the Pierre Auger Observatory

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    International audienceA catalog containing details of the highest-energy cosmic rays recorded through the detection of extensive air-showers at the Pierre Auger Observatory is presented with the aim of opening the data to detailed examination. Descriptions of the 100 showers created by the highest-energy particles recorded between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2020 are given for cosmic rays that have energies in the range 78 EeV to 166 EeV. Details are also given of a further nine very-energetic events that have been used in the calibration procedure adopted to determine the energy of each primary. A sky plot of the arrival directions of the most energetic particles is shown. No interpretations of the data are offered

    The dynamic range of the upgraded surface-detector stations of AugerPrime

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    The detection of ultra-high-energy cosmic rays by means of giant detector arrays is often limited by the saturation of the recorded signals near the impact point of the shower core at the ground, where the particle density dramatically increases. The saturation affects in particular the highest energy events, worsening the systematic uncertainties in the reconstruction of the shower characteristics. The upgrade of the Pierre Auger Observatory, called AugerPrime, includes the installation of an 1-inch Small PhotoMultiplier Tube (SPMT) inside each water-Cherenkov station (WCD) of the surface detector array. The SPMT allows an unambiguous measurement of signals down to about 250m from the shower core, thus reducing the number of events featuring a saturated station to a negligible level. In addition, a 3.8m2 plastic scintillator (Scintillator Surface Detector, SSD) is installed on top of each WCD. The SSD is designed to match the WCD (with SPMT) dynamic range, providing a complementary measurement of the shower components up to the highest energies. In this work, the design and performances of the upgraded AugerPrime surface-detector stations in the extended dynamic range are described, highlighting the accuracy of the measurements. A first analysis employing the unsaturated signals in the event reconstruction is also presented
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