76 research outputs found

    Gender Differences in Presentation, Management, and In-Hospital Outcomes for Patients with AMI in a Lower-Middle Income Country: Evidence from Egypt

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    BACKGROUND: Many studies in high-income countries have investigated gender differences in the care and outcomes of patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). However, little evidence exists on gender differences among patients with AMI in lower-middle-income countries, where the proportion deaths stemming from cardiovascular disease is projected to increase dramatically. This study examines gender differences in patients in the lower-middle-income country of Egypt to determine if female patients with AMI have a different presentation, management, or outcome compared with men. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Using registry data collected over 18 months from 5 Egyptian hospitals, we considered 1204 patients (253 females, 951 males) with a confirmed diagnosis of AMI. We examined gender differences in initial presentation, clinical management, and in-hospital outcomes using t-tests and χ(2) tests. Additionally, we explored gender differences in in-hospital death using multivariate logistic regression to adjust for age and other differences in initial presentation. We found that women were older than men, had higher BMI, and were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, heart failure, and atrial fibrillation. Women were less likely to receive aspirin upon admission (p<0.01) or aspirin or statins at discharge (p = 0.001 and p<0.05, respectively), although the magnitude of these differences was small. While unadjusted in-hospital mortality was significantly higher for women (OR: 2.10; 95% CI: 1.54 to 2.87), this difference did not persist in the fully adjusted model (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 0.55 to 2.55). CONCLUSIONS: We found that female patients had a different profile than men at the time of presentation. Clinical management of men and women with AMI was similar, though there are small but significant differences in some areas. These gender differences did not translate into differences in in-hospital outcome, but highlight differences in quality of care and represent important opportunities for improvement

    Reducing the environmental impact of surgery on a global scale: systematic review and co-prioritization with healthcare workers in 132 countries

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    Abstract Background Healthcare cannot achieve net-zero carbon without addressing operating theatres. The aim of this study was to prioritize feasible interventions to reduce the environmental impact of operating theatres. Methods This study adopted a four-phase Delphi consensus co-prioritization methodology. In phase 1, a systematic review of published interventions and global consultation of perioperative healthcare professionals were used to longlist interventions. In phase 2, iterative thematic analysis consolidated comparable interventions into a shortlist. In phase 3, the shortlist was co-prioritized based on patient and clinician views on acceptability, feasibility, and safety. In phase 4, ranked lists of interventions were presented by their relevance to high-income countries and low–middle-income countries. Results In phase 1, 43 interventions were identified, which had low uptake in practice according to 3042 professionals globally. In phase 2, a shortlist of 15 intervention domains was generated. In phase 3, interventions were deemed acceptable for more than 90 per cent of patients except for reducing general anaesthesia (84 per cent) and re-sterilization of ‘single-use’ consumables (86 per cent). In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for high-income countries were: introducing recycling; reducing use of anaesthetic gases; and appropriate clinical waste processing. In phase 4, the top three shortlisted interventions for low–middle-income countries were: introducing reusable surgical devices; reducing use of consumables; and reducing the use of general anaesthesia. Conclusion This is a step toward environmentally sustainable operating environments with actionable interventions applicable to both high– and low–middle–income countries

    Gender Differences in the Association Between Body Mass Index and Psychopathology

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    Introduction: The objective of the study was to examine gender,differences in the relationship between weight group (under-weight to severely obese), and Axis I and Axis 11 psychopathology. Methods: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were analyzed. Logistic regression models examined the past-year likelihood for meeting diagnostic criteria for psychiatric disorders. Interactions between weight group and gender were utilized to determine whether associations were significantly different in men and women after adjusting for demographic characteristics. Results: First, consistent with previous NESARC analyses, the prevalence estimates of psychiatric disorders were higher among people of higher body mass index groups, regardless of gender. However, these patterns differed across genders. Both severely obese women and men, in comparison to normal weight respondents, were much more likely to meet criteria for affective and anxiety disorders, but these associations were significantly (1.5-2 times) stronger among women. For Axis 11 disorders, while there were very few associations between personality disorders and weight in men, among women increases in weight group were associated with increases in the likelihood of meeting criteria for a personality disorder. Conclusion: Weight and psychopathology appear more strongly associated in women than in men. While these data do not allow for identification of underlying mechanisms, they highlight the importance of assessing for psychopathology in overweight and obese patients, and suggest that weight management may be an important consideration in the treatment of psychiatric disorders. CNS Spear. 2009;14(7):372-38

    Unmet need for personal assistance with activities of daily living among older adults

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    This study examined the prevalence, correlates, and negative consequences of unmet need for personal assis-tance with activities of daily living (ADLs) among older adults. Design and Methods: The authors analyzed cross

    Comparing the Effectiveness of Shared versus Private Latrines in Preventing Trachoma in Rural Tanzania

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    Sharing latrines is common in sub-Saharan Africa with anecdotal accounts suggesting a link between water-, sanitation-, and hygiene-related disease and poorly maintained communal latrines. This study examines this link by assessing the association between shared latrines compared with private latrines and risk of trachoma. In 2007, as part of a larger case-control study, we conducted a sub-study on latrine sharing in 594 households (92 cases, 502 controls) in seven rural Tanzanian communities. Case households were defined by having a child with clinical signs of trachoma. Latrine use was associated with a decreased risk of trachoma and there was no difference in risk between households using shared compared with private latrines (adjusted odds ratio = 0.95 [95% confidence interval = 0.55–1.67]). This study emphasizes the need to promote latrine use, which can be facilitated through latrine sharing in resource scarce areas, for prevention of trachoma