31,696 research outputs found

    History of Attorney Specialization in Indiana

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    Assessing and enhancing quality through outcomes-based continuing professional development (CPD): a review of current practice

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    Numerous professional bodies have questioned whether traditional input-based continuing professional development (CPD) schemes are effective at measuring genuine learning and improving practice performance and patient health. The most commonly used type of long-established CPD activities, such as conferences, lectures and symposia, have been found to have a limited effect on improving practitioner competence and performance, and no significant effect on patient health outcomes. Additionally, it is thought that the impact of many CPD activities is reduced when they are undertaken in isolation outside of a defined structure of directed learning. In contrast, CPD activities which are interactive, encourage reflection on practice, provide opportunities to practice skills, involve multiple exposures, help practitioners to identify between current performance and a standard to be achieved, and are focused on outcomes, are the most effective at improving practice and patient health outcomes

    Evidence-Based Healthcare: The Importance of Effective Interprofessional Working for High Quality Veterinary Services, a UK Example

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    <p class="AbstractSummary"><strong>Objective: </strong></p><p class="AbstractSummary">To highlight the importance of evidence-based research, not only for the consideration of clinical diseases and individual patient treatment, but also for investigating complex healthcare systems, as demonstrated through a focus on veterinary interprofessional working.</p><p class="AbstractSummary"><strong>Background:</strong></p><p class="AbstractSummary">Evidence-Based Veterinary Medicine (EBVM) was developed due to concerns over inconsistent approaches to therapy being delivered by individuals. However, a focus purely on diagnosis and treatment will miss other potential causes of substandard care including the holistic system. Veterinary services are provided by interprofessional teams; research on these teams is growing.</p><p class="AbstractSummary"><strong>Evidentiary value:</strong></p><p class="AbstractSummary">This paper outlines results from four articles, written by the current authors, which are unique in their focus on interprofessional practice teams in the UK. Through mixed methods, the articles demonstrate an evidence base of the effects of interprofessional working on the quality of service delivery.</p><p class="AbstractSummary"><strong>Results:</strong></p><p class="AbstractSummary">The articles explored demonstrate facilitators and challenges of the practice system on interprofessional working and the outcomes, including errors. The results encourage consideration of interprofessional relationships and activities in veterinary organisations. Interprofessional working is an example of one area which can affect the quality of veterinary services.</p><p class="AbstractSummary"><strong>Conclusion: </strong></p><p class="AbstractSummary">The papers presented on veterinary interprofessional working are an example of the opportunities for future research on various topics within evidence-based healthcare.</p><p class="AbstractSummary"><strong>Application:</strong></p><p class="AbstractSummary">The results are pertinent to members of veterinary teams seeking to improve their service delivery, to educators looking to enhance their students’ understanding of interprofessional working, and to researchers, who will hopefully be encouraged to consider evidence-based healthcare more holistically. </p><br /> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/oa-icon.jpg" alt="Open Access" /> <img src="https://www.veterinaryevidence.org/rcvskmod/icons/pr-icon.jpg" alt="Peer Reviewed" /

    PROJECT OPTIMA: optimisation of policies for transport integration in metropolitan areas

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    The overall objectives of Project OPTIMA were: (i) to identify optimal urban transport and land use strategies for a range of urban areas within the EU; (ii) to compare the strategies which are specified as optimal in different cities, and to assess the reasons for these differences; (iii) to assess the acceptability and feasibility of implementation of these strategies both in nine case study cities (Edinburgh, Merseyside, Vienna, Eisenstadt, Tromsø, Oslo, Helsinki, Torino and Salerno) and more widely in the EU; and (iv) to use the results to provide more general guidance on urban transport policy within the EU

    Explaining variations in public acceptability of road pricing schemes

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    The literature on acceptability of road pricing schemes is reviewed, and a number of limitations of that research are identified. In particular, little evidence is found of the differences between users and non-users and the effects of scheme design and level of charge. A stated preference survey was conducted in two UK cities to provide evidence on these issues. Charging was found to be more acceptable to non-users, those who perceived pollution and congestion to be very serious, those who considered current conditions unacceptable, and those who judged road pricing to be effective. It proved possible to identify design combinations, for both cities, which would be voted for by a majority

    Identity, environment and mental wellbeing in the veterinary profession

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    Mental health and career dissatisfaction are of increasing concern to the veterinary profession. The influence of identity on the psychological wellbeing of veterinarians has not been widely explored. Twelve recent veterinary graduates were enrolled in a private social media discussion group, and their identities investigated through narrative inquiry: a methodology which enables identity priorities to be extrapolated from stories of experience. Two distinct variants of the veterinary identity were identified: an academic, ‘diagnosis-focused’ identity, which prioritised definitive diagnosis and best-evidence treatment; and a broader ‘challenge-focused’ identity, where priorities additionally included engaging with the client, challenging environment or veterinary business. Contextual challenges (such as a client with limited finances or difficult interpersonal interactions) were seen as a source of frustration for those with a diagnosis-focused identity, as they obstructed the realisation of identity goals. Overcoming these challenges provided satisfaction to those with a challenge-focused identity. The employment environment of the graduates (general veterinary practice) provided more opportunities for those with a challenge-focused identity to realise identity goals, and more markers of emotional wellbeing were apparent in their stories. Markers of poor emotional health were evident in the stories of those with a diagnosis-focused identity
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