3,253 research outputs found

    The H1 Forward Track Detector at HERA II

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    In order to maintain efficient tracking in the forward region of H1 after the luminosity upgrade of the HERA machine, the H1 Forward Track Detector was also upgraded. While much of the original software and techniques used for the HERA I phase could be reused, the software for pattern recognition was completely rewritten. This, along with several other improvements in hit finding and high-level track reconstruction, are described in detail together with a summary of the performance of the detector.Comment: Minor revision requested by journal (JINST) edito

    Tagging High Energy Photons in the H1 Detector at HERA

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    Measures taken to extend the acceptance of the H1 detector at HERA for photoproduction events are described. These will enable the measurement of electrons scattered in events in the high y range 0.85 < y < 0.95 in the 1998 and 1999 HERA run period. The improvement is achieved by the installation of an electromagnetic calorimeter, the ET8, in the HERA tunnel close to the electron beam line 8 m downstream of the H1 interaction point in the electron direction. The ET8 will allow the study of tagged gamma p interactions at centre-of-mass energies significantly higher than those previously attainable. The calorimeter design and expected performance are discussed, as are results obtained using a prototype placed as close as possible to the position of the ET8 during the 1996 and 1997 HERA running.Comment: 13 pages, 13 figure

    A New High Energy Photon Tagger for the H1 - Detector at HERA

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    The H1 detector at HERA has been upgraded by the addition of a new electromagnetic calorimeter. This is installed in the HERA tunnel close to the electron beam line at a position 8m from the interaction point in the electron beam direction. The new calorimeter extends the acceptance for tagged photoproduction events to the high y range, 0.85 < y < 0.95, and thus significantly improves the capability of H1 to study high energy gamma-p processes. The calorimeter design, performance and first results obtained during the 1996-1999 HERA running are described.Comment: 17 pages, 16 figure

    Excitability in autonomous Boolean networks

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    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that excitable systems can be built with autonomous Boolean networks. Their experimental implementation is realized with asynchronous logic gates on a reconfigurabe chip. When these excitable systems are assembled into time-delay networks, their dynamics display nanosecond time-scale spike synchronization patterns that are controllable in period and phase.Comment: 6 pages, 5 figures, accepted in Europhysics Letters (epljournal.edpsciences.org

    Molecular motion in cell membranes: analytic study of fence-hindered random walks

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    A theoretical calculation is presented to describe the confined motion of transmembrane molecules in cell membranes. The study is analytic, based on Master equations for the probability of the molecules moving as random walkers, and leads to explicit usable solutions including expressions for the molecular mean square displacement and effective diffusion constants. One outcome is a detailed understanding of the dependence of the time variation of the mean square displacement on the initial placement of the molecule within the confined region. How to use the calculations is illustrated by extracting (confinement) compartment sizes from experimentally reported published observations from single particle tracking experiments on the diffusion of gold-tagged G-protein coupled mu-opioid receptors in the normal rat kidney cell membrane, and by further comparing the analytical results to observations on the diffusion of phospholipids, also in normal rat kidney cells.Comment: 10 pages, 5 figure

    The Conformal Anomaly of M5-Branes

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    We show that the conformal anomaly for N M5-branes grows like N3N^3. The method we employ relates Coulomb branch interactions in six dimensions to interactions in four dimensions using supersymmetry. This leads to a relation between the six-dimensional conformal anomaly and the conformal anomaly of N=4 Yang-Mills. Along the way, we determine the structure of the four derivative interactions for the toroidally compactified (2,0) theory, while encountering interesting novelties in the structure of the six derivative interactions.Comment: 38 pages, LaTeX; references adde

    The changing pattern of domestic cannabis cultivation in the UK and its impact on the cannabis market

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    With improvements in both technology and information cannabis is being increasingly grown indoors for domestic use, rather than being imported. This study examines 50 cannabis farms detected by an English police force, and examines the characteristics of the 61 suspects associated with them. The study highlights a UK pattern in domestic cultivation, that is moving away from large scale commercial cultivation, at times co-ordinated by South East Asian organised crime groups, to increased cultivation within residential premises by British citizens. Offenders range from those who have no prior criminal history to those who are serious and persistent offenders. The ramifications for law enforcement agencies and policy formers are discussed

    Cellular localization, accumulation and trafficking of double-walled carbon nanotubes in human prostate cancer cells

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    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are at present being considered as potential nanovectors with the ability to deliver therapeutic cargoes into living cells. Previous studies established the ability of CNTs to enter cells and their therapeutic utility, but an appreciation of global intracellular trafficking associated with their cellular distribution has yet to be described. Despite the many aspects of the uptake mechanism of CNTs being studied, only a few studies have investigated internalization and fate of CNTs inside cells in detail. In the present study, intracellular localization and trafficking of RNA-wrapped, oxidized double-walled CNTs (oxDWNT–RNA) is presented. Fixed cells, previously exposed to oxDWNT–RNA, were subjected to immunocytochemical analysis using antibodies specific to proteins implicated in endocytosis; moreover cell compartment markers and pharmacological inhibitory conditions were also employed in this study. Our results revealed that an endocytic pathway is involved in the internalization of oxDWNT–RNA. The nanotubes were found in clathrin-coated vesicles, after which they appear to be sorted in early endosomes, followed by vesicular maturation, become located in lysosomes. Furthermore, we observed co-localization of oxDWNT–RNA with the small GTP-binding protein (Rab 11), involved in their recycling back to the plasma membrane via endosomes from the trans-golgi network

    New Examples of Flux Vacua

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    Type IIB toroidal orientifolds are among the earliest examples of flux vacua. By applying T-duality, we construct the first examples of massive IIA flux vacua with Minkowski space-times, along with new examples of type IIA flux vacua. The backgrounds are surprisingly simple with no four-form flux at all. They serve as illustrations of the ingredients needed to build type IIA and massive IIA solutions with scale separation. To check that these backgrounds are actually solutions, we formulate the complete set of type II supergravity equations of motion in a very useful form that treats the R-R fields democratically.Comment: 38 pages, LaTeX; references updated; additional minor comments added; published versio
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