44 research outputs found

    Development and integration of animal-based welfare indicators, including pain, in goat farms in Portugal

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    Tese de Doutoramento em Ci√™ncias Veterin√°rias, especialidade de Cl√≠nicaThe development of species-specific protocols for on-farm welfare assessment represents a major concern for the European Union agricultural policy. Proper welfare assessment demands for the use of valid, reliable and feasible animal-based welfare indicators. The literature and policy-makers recognise the need for advancing knowledge in this area. This thesis aims at developing and integrating animal-based indicators in on-farm welfare assessment protocols, focusing on dairy goat farms. Specifically, this thesis contributes to literature in three areas. First, it contributes to the identification of animal-based welfare indicators that should be included in welfare assessment protocols. We conducted a literature review that allowed for the recognition of the need for future research in the indicators‚Äô psychometric properties, such as reliability and feasibility. Secondly, this thesis develops tools to assist the measurement of body condition and lameness. For body condition, we developed a visual body condition scoring system (BSC). Our approach requires minimum animal handling without compromising a valid and reliable individual assessment of the goats. With respect to lameness we developed a websurvey that allowed us to collect observer‚Äôs ratings of goats lameness condition. Our survey showed that observers were only able to consistently assess severely lame goats, a finding which is important towards the integration of the indicator in assessment protocols. The observers‚Äô ratings also showed that the numerical rating scales should only be used considering their ordinal level of measurement. This directs research towards the development of scoring systems with higher levels of measurement, like the modified visual analogue scales. Third, this thesis contributed to the development of a welfare assessment protocol that integrated and tested the two studied indicators (BCS and lameness). Such protocol was implemented in 30 Portuguese farms and provided insights into the main welfare problems affecting intensively kept dairy goats in our country (claw overgrowth, queuing at feeding, very fat animals), which is paramount to improve dairy goats‚Äô welfare. Research conducted for this thesis has practical implications for both welfare assessment research and to the goat industry in general. Ultimately, through the development of adequate assessment tools, it integrates the welfare issue into the food chain, meeting the consumers‚Äô expectations in the development of a sustainable food production system.RESUMO - Desenvolvimento e integra√ß√£o de indicadores de bem-estar animal, incluindo dor, em explora√ß√Ķes de cabras em Portugal - A elabora√ß√£o de protocolos de avalia√ß√£o de bem-estar espec√≠ficos para cada esp√©cie pecu√°ria √© uma preocupa√ß√£o da pol√≠tica agr√≠cola europeia. A literatura da √°rea de bem-estar animal identifica a cria√ß√£o de instrumentos de medi√ß√£o como o primeiro passo para a elabora√ß√£o destes protocolos. Esta tese tem como objetivo desenvolver e integrar indicadores para incluir em protocolos de avalia√ß√£o para utilizar em explora√ß√Ķes de cabras de aptid√£o leiteira. Esta tese apresenta tr√™s contributos para a literatura de bem-estar animal. Em primeiro lugar, contribui para a identifica√ß√£o de indicadores, baseados nos animais, com potencial para integra√ß√£o em protocolos de avalia√ß√£o. A revis√£o bibliogr√°fica realizada permitiu reconhecer a necessidade premente de investiga√ß√£o nesta √°rea, dado que a maior parte dos indicadores necessitam de ser testados e validados. Em segundo lugar, esta tese desenvolve ferramentas para apoiar a avalia√ß√£o da condi√ß√£o corporal e da claudica√ß√£o. Para a condi√ß√£o corporal foi criado um sistema visual de avalia√ß√£o considerado v√°lido e repet√≠vel, e que apenas necessita de uma breve conten√ß√£o dos animais para ser utilizado. Relativamente √† claudica√ß√£o foram recolhidas participa√ß√Ķes de observadores relativamente √† observa√ß√£o de v√≠deos de cabras com diferentes n√≠veis de claudica√ß√£o. A an√°lise destas observa√ß√Ķes permitiu concluir que os participantes apenas s√£o consistentes a avaliar os casos mais graves de claudica√ß√£o, facto importante para a integra√ß√£o do indicador em protocolos de avalia√ß√£o. As classifica√ß√Ķes dos observadores mostraram ainda que as escalas num√©ricas em uso apenas podem ser utilizadas considerando um n√≠vel ordinal de medi√ß√£o. Este facto abre o caminho para o desenvolvimento de escalas com n√≠veis mais elevados de medi√ß√£o, como as escalas visuais anal√≥gicas modificadas. Em terceiro lugar, esta tese desenvolve um protocolo de avalia√ß√£o que inclui e testa os indicadores condi√ß√£o corporal e claudica√ß√£o. Este protocolo permitiu investigar sobre os maiores problemas de bem-estar que afetam as explora√ß√Ķes intensivas de leite de cabra em Portugal (sobre crescimento das unhas, filas na manjedoura, animais gordos), sendo esta informa√ß√£o fundamental para analisar como melhorar o bem-estar das cabras de leite. A investiga√ß√£o conduzida no √Ęmbito desta tese apresenta implica√ß√Ķes pr√°ticas tanto para o estudo do bem-estar animal, como para a explora√ß√£o de leite de cabra. O desenvolvimento de ferramentas adequadas de avalia√ß√£o permite a integra√ß√£o da valora√ß√£o do bem-estar na cadeia de produ√ß√£o, indo ao encontro das expectativas dos consumidores para a concep√ß√£o de sistemas mais sustent√°veis de produ√ß√£o de alimentos

    O papel do enfermeiro de reabilita√ß√£o no processo de transi√ß√£o sa√ļde-doen√ßa

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    O presente relat√≥rio foi elaborado em contexto do Est√°gio Final, do 2¬ļ ano do VI Mestrado em Enfermagem em Associa√ß√£o, na √°rea de especializa√ß√£o de Enfermagem em Reabilita√ß√£o. Os ensinos cl√≠nicos t√™m como objetivo principal a aquisi√ß√£o de compet√™ncias de mestre e de Enfermeiro Especialista em Enfermagem de Reabilita√ß√£o. Tendo como foco o processo de transi√ß√£o sa√ļde-doen√ßa, foi aplicado um plano de interven√ß√Ķes com o objetivo de capacitar os v√°rios intervenientes no processo de reabilita√ß√£o. Esse plano divide-se em tr√™s grupos: cuidador informal, enfermeiro generalista e a pessoa com altera√ß√£o da funcionalidade. A capacita√ß√£o do cuidador informal foi realizada por contato telef√≥nico seguindo a estrutura da entrevista. A capacita√ß√£o do enfermeiro generalista foi realizada atrav√©s de forma√ß√£o em servi√ßo. A capacita√ß√£o da pessoa foi realizada atrav√©s da presta√ß√£o direta de cuidados de Enfermagem de Reabilita√ß√£o. A reflex√£o sobre as atividades desenvolvidas permitiu concluir que o Enfermeiro de Reabilita√ß√£o cumpre um papel fulcral no processo de transi√ß√£o sa√ļde-doen√ßa, uma vez que tem compet√™ncias acrescidas para ser facilitador nesse processo, para todos os intervenientes.This report was elaborated in the context of the Final Internship, in the second year of the VI master‚Äôs degree in nursing in Association, in the specialization area of Rehabilitation Nursing. Clinical teachings have the main objective of acquiring master's and Specialist Nurse in Rehabilitation Nursing competencies. Focusing on the health-disease transition process, an intervention plan was applied to empower the various stakeholders in the rehabilitation process. This plan was divided into three groups: informal caregiver, generalist nurse, and the person with functional impairment. The informal caregiver's empowerment was conducted by telephone contact following the interview structure. The generalist nurse's empowerment was conducted through on-the-job training. The person's empowerment was conducted through direct provision of Rehabilitation Nursing care. Reflection on the activities developed allowed us to conclude that the Rehabilitation Nurse plays a crucial role in the health-disease transition process, as they have enhanced competencies to be a facilitator in this process, for all stakeholders

    Uma sa√ļde global : princ√≠pios da estrat√©gia global de conten√ß√£o de resist√™ncias a agentes antimicrobianos : sua percep√ß√£o e implementa√ß√£o pelos produtores de bovinos de carne do Ribatejo Norte

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    Disserta√ß√£o de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterin√°riaA utiliza√ß√£o de antimicrobianos na produ√ß√£o animal tem sido motivo de intenso debate, pelas preocupa√ß√Ķes sobre possibilidade de transfer√™ncia de bact√©rias a eles resistentes dos animais para o Homem. Foram desenvolvidos programas de monitoriza√ß√£o de resist√™ncias e consumo de antimicrobianos, que demonstram que o desenvolvimento de resist√™ncias pode ser minimizado pela implementa√ß√£o de estrat√©gias para uma utiliza√ß√£o prudente e racional dos antimicrobianos nas explora√ß√Ķes pecu√°rias. O presente estudo constitui uma primeira abordagem para avaliar diversos par√Ęmetros importantes para a utiliza√ß√£o prudente e racional dos antimicrobianos, como os conhecimentos, grau de percep√ß√£o e pr√°ticas dos produtores, para o que foram realizados 185 question√°rios presenciais em explora√ß√Ķes de bovinos de carne da DIV Ribatejo Norte. Os resultados alertam para a necessidade de forma√ß√£o nas √°reas da Biosseguran√ßa/Bioconten√ß√£o e de manuten√ß√£o de registos de utiliza√ß√£o de antimicrobianos nas explora√ß√Ķes. Os m√©dicos veterin√°rios t√™m um papel importante, por serem a principal fonte de informa√ß√£o dos produtores. A informa√ß√£o obtida n√£o nos permitiu avaliar o consumo de antimicrobianos; apenas 11% dos produtores mantinham registos, na sua maioria incompletos, das interven√ß√Ķes metafil√°ticas e terap√™uticas. A alternativa de an√°lise das informa√ß√Ķes das receitas/requisi√ß√Ķes veterin√°rias, tamb√©m n√£o foi vi√°vel, pois apenas 82% das aquisi√ß√Ķes era acompanhada de requisi√ß√£o/receita M√©dico-Veterin√°ria. As √ļltimas quest√Ķes do question√°rio elaborado procuravam conhecer a opini√£o dos respons√°veis pelas explora√ß√Ķes. Deste total, 94% concordavam que a introdu√ß√£o de boas pr√°ticas podia reduzir a utiliza√ß√£o de antimicrobianos, tendo 52% considerado importante esta redu√ß√£o, demonstrando que existe espa√ßo para a redu√ß√£o da utiliza√ß√£o destes medicamentos. Um total de 18% dos produtores n√£o expressou a opini√£o sobre antibiorresist√™ncias, confirmando a necessidade de aumentar o n√≠vel de forma√ß√£o nesta √°rea.ABSTRACT - ‚ÄúOne Health: Global Principles for the Containment of antimicrobial resistance ‚Äď perceived importance and implementation by beef farmers at Ribatejo Norte‚ÄĚ - The use of antimicrobial drugs in livestock farms has been at the center of many debates because of the possibility of resistant bacteria transmission from animals to men. Resistance and antimicrobial consumption monitoring programs have been developed, suggesting that the risks of development of resistant bacteria can be minimized through a prudent and rational use of antimicrobials in livestock farms. This study is a first approach to evaluate several parameters important to the prudent and rational use of antimicrobials, such as farmers‚Äė knowledge, perceived degree of importance and management practices. A total of 185 in-person interviews were conducted in beef farms of the DIV Ribatejo Norte in Portugal. Results alert for the need to further educate farmers in Biosecurity/Biocontainment and to keep registries of antimicrobials in the farms. Veterinarians play an important role, for being the main source of information. The information obtained did not allow for an evaluation of antimicrobial consumption; only 11% of the farmers kept records, largely incomplete, of metaphylactic and therapeutic treatments. The alternative of collecting data on veterinary prescriptions was also not viable, since only 82% of purchased drugs were sanctioned by a veterinarian. The last two questions elicited the farm manager ‚Äóopinions. From this total, 94% agreed that good management practices could reduce the antimicrobial usage in their farms; furthermore, 52% agreed that this reduction was important, showing that such reduction could be achieved. A total of 18% of the farmers did not have an opinion on antimicrobial resistance, confirming the requirements for further education in this area

    Interven√ß√Ķes no espa√ßo urbano

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    A presen√ßa da vegeta√ß√£o na cidade tem de ser entendida como um dos elementos de composi√ß√£o da estrutura urbana, n√£o podendo ser vista como uma mera consequ√™ncia residual do planeamento urbano. O reconhecimento das fun√ß√Ķes que desempenha como amenidade ambiental, como suporte de recreio e lazer e como uma das componentes da morfologia urbana, exige uma perspectiva de interven√ß√£o que tenha em vista potenciar as suas fun√ß√Ķes no tecido urbano. Com o presente trabalho pretende-se apresentar o trabalho desenvolvido ao longo do est√°gio na C√Ęmara Municipal de Castelo Branco, destacando os principais aspectos, positivos e negativos, do mesmo. Considerou-se importante abordar alguns conceitos inerentes ao tema deste trabalho que, para al√©m de servirem de enquadramento te√≥rico, fundamentam tamb√©m as quest√Ķes pr√°ticas desenvolvidas no presente relat√≥rio; ABSTRACT:Vegetation‚Äôs presence in the city must be percieved as an element of urban morphology composition, instead of some consequense of urban planning. The recognition of vegetation‚Äôs functions as environmental amenity, recreation support or as a component of urban morphology, demands an intervention that would improve that same functions in urban space. This report pretends to expose the work developed at the C√Ęmara Municipal de Castelo Branco during the internship, bringing into focus the main subjects both positive and negative. It was considered important to approach some concepts related to the theme of this report, witch provide theorical fundamentation as well as a base support to pratical issues developed in this report

    Tubulin post-translational modifications: the elusive roles of acetylation

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    This work was funded by Instituto Polit√©cnico de Lisboa IPL/2021/ObeCil_ESTeSL and IPL/2022/WintCilGlu_ESTeSL.Microtubules (MTs), dynamic polymers of őĪ/ő≤-tubulin heterodimers found in all eukaryotes, are involved in cytoplasm spatial organization, intracellular transport, cell polarity, migration, division, and cilia biology. MTs functional diversity depends on the differential expression of distinct tubulin isotypes and is amplified by a vast number of different post-translational modifications (PTMs). The addition/removal of PTMs to őĪ- or ő≤-tubulins is catalyzed by specific enzymes and allows combinatory patterns largely enriching the distinct biochemical and biophysical properties of MTs, creating a code read by distinct proteins, including microtubule-associated proteins (MAPs), which allow cellular responses. This review is focused on tubulin-acetylation, whose cellular roles continue to generate debate. We travel through the experimental data pointing to őĪ-tubulin Lys40 acetylation role as being an MT stabilizer and a typical PTM of long-lived MTs, to the most recent data, suggesting that Lys40 acetylation enhances MT flexibility and alters the mechanical properties of MTs, preventing MTs from mechanical aging characterized by structural damage. Additionally, we discuss the regulation of tubulin acetyltransferases/desacetylases and their impacts on cell physiology. Finally, we analyze how changes in MT acetylation levels have been found to be a general response to stress and how they are associated with several human pathologies.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Epithelioid Angiosarcoma in a Patient with Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber Syndrome: An Unexpected Response to Therapy

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    We present a rare case of Stewart-Treves syndrome characterized by a diffuse angiosarcoma of the leg in a 22-year-old man with a history of chronic lymphedema due to Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome. He underwent limb disarticulation and medical treatment with cycles of doxorubicin, oral thalidomide and sunitinib with a very good response after 12 months of follow-up

    Real f√°brica de vidros de Coina ‚Äď Chemical analysis of archaeological glass fragments

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    Actas do 17¬ļ Congresso da Associa√ß√£o Internacional para a Hist√≥ria do Vidr

    Microbiological and chemical quality of portuguese lettuce - results of a case study

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    In addition to environmental pollution issues, social concerns about the sustainability, safety, and quality of conventionally grown fruits and vegetables have been increasing. In order to evaluate if there were any microbiological differences between samples of organic and conventional lettuce, a wide range of parameters were tested, including pathogens and indicator organisms: the enumeration of Escherichia coli; the detection of Salmonella spp.; the detection/enumeration of Listeria monocytogenes; the enumeration of lactic acid bacteria, Pseudomonas spp. yeasts and molds, and Enterobacteriaceae. This study also evaluated the chemical safety of the lettuce samples, quantifying the nitrate concentration and 20 pesticides (14 organochlorine and 6 organophosphorus pesticides). Significant differences (p<0.05) between the conventional and organic samples were only detected for the counts of total microorganisms at 30‚ó¶C. Pathogens were absent in all the samples. The analytical method, using the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) approach for pesticide extraction, was suitable for detecting the targeted analyte s; the limit of quantification(LOQ) was between 0.6 and 1.8őľg/kg (lower than the Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs) established by EU legislation). In three organic lettuce samples, one organochlorine pesticide (őĪ-HCH) was observed below the MRLs. For the samples analyzed and for the parameters investigated, except for the total mesophilic counts, the organic and conventional lettuces were not different.info:eu-repo/semantics/publishedVersio

    Educating for earthquake science and risk in a tectonically slowly deforming region

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    Over the past decade, scientists have been called to participate more actively in public education and outreach (E&O). This is particularly true in fields of significant societal impact, such as earthquake science. Local earthquake risk culture plays a role in the way that the public engages in educational efforts. In this article, we describe an adapted E&O program for earthquake science and risk. The program is tailored for a region of slow tectonic deformation, where large earthquakes are extreme events that occur with long return periods. The adapted program has two main goals: (1) to increase the awareness and preparedness of the population to earthquake and related risks (tsunami, liquefaction, fires, etc.), and (2) to increase the quality of earthquake science education, so as to attract talented students to geosciences. Our integrated program relies on activities tuned for different population groups who have different interests and abilities, namely young children, teenagers, young adults, and professionals
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