1,696 research outputs found

    Structure of glassy lithium sulfate films sputtered in nitrogen (LISON): Insight from Raman spectroscopy and ab initio calculations

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    Raman spectra of thin solid electrolyte films obtained by sputtering a lithium sulfate target in nitrogen plasma are measured and compared to ab initio electronic structure calculations for clusters composed of 28 atoms. Agreement between measured and calculated spectra is obtained when oxygen atoms are replaced by nitrogen atoms and when the nitrogen atoms form bonds with each other. This suggests that the incorporation of nitrogen during the sputtering process leads to structures in the film, which prevent crystallization of these thin film salt glasses.Comment: 5 pages, 4 figure

    Protein-DNA computation by stochastic assembly cascade

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    The assembly of RecA on single-stranded DNA is measured and interpreted as a stochastic finite-state machine that is able to discriminate fine differences between sequences, a basic computational operation. RecA filaments efficiently scan DNA sequence through a cascade of random nucleation and disassembly events that is mechanistically similar to the dynamic instability of microtubules. This iterative cascade is a multistage kinetic proofreading process that amplifies minute differences, even a single base change. Our measurements suggest that this stochastic Turing-like machine can compute certain integral transforms.Comment: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC129313/ http://www.pnas.org/content/99/18/11589.abstrac

    A role for TSPO in mitochondrial Ca2+ homeostasis and redox stress signaling

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    The 18 kDa translocator protein TSPO localizes on the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). Systematically overexpressed at sites of neuroinflammation it is adopted as a biomarker of brain conditions. TSPO inhibits the autophagic removal of mitochondria by limiting PARK2-mediated mitochondrial ubiquitination via a peri-organelle accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here we describe that TSPO deregulates mitochondrial Ca2+ signaling leading to a parallel increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ pools that activate the Ca2+-dependent NADPH oxidase (NOX) thereby increasing ROS. The inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake by TSPO is a consequence of the phosphorylation of the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC1) by the protein kinase A (PKA), which is recruited to the mitochondria, in complex with the Acyl-CoA binding domain containing 3 (ACBD3). Notably, the neurotransmitter glutamate, which contributes neuronal toxicity in age-dependent conditions, triggers this TSPO-dependent mechanism of cell signaling leading to cellular demise. TSPO is therefore proposed as a novel OMM-based pathway to control intracellular Ca2+ dynamics and redox transients in neuronal cytotoxicity

    On generalizations of Ostrowski inequality via Euler harmonic identities

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    Copyright © 2002 L. J. Dedić et al. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons License.Some generalizations of Ostrowski inequality are given, by using some Euler identities involving harmonic sequences of polynomials.L. J. Dedić, M. Matić, J. Pečarić, and A. Vukeli

    The microRNA analysis portal is a next-generation tool for exploring and analyzing miRNA-focused data in the literature.

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    MicroRNAs constitute a class of noncoding small RNAs involved in the posttranscriptional regulation of many biological pathways. In recent years, microRNAs have also been associated with regulation across kingdoms, demonstrating that exogenous miRNAs can function in mammals in a fashion similar to mammalian miRNAs. The growing interest in microRNAs and the increasing amount of literature and molecular and biomedical data available make it difficult to identify records of interest and keep up to date with novel findings. For these reasons, we developed the microRNA Analysis Portal (MAP). MAP selects relevant miRNA-focused articles from PubMed, links biomedical and molecular data and applies bioinformatics modules. At the time of this writing, MAP represents the richest, most complete and integrated database focused on microRNAs. MAP also integrates an updated version of MirCompare (2.0), a computational platform used for selecting plant microRNAs on the basis of their ability to regulate mammalian genes. Both MAP and MirCompare functionalities were used to predict that microRNAs from Moringa oleifera have putative roles across kingdoms by regulating human genes coding for proteins of the immune system. Starting from a selection of 94 human microRNAs, MirCompare selected 6 Moringa oleifera functional homologs. The subsequent prediction of human targets and areas of functional enrichment highlighted the central involvement of these genes in regulating immune system processes, particularly the host-virus interaction processes in hepatitis B, cytomegalovirus, papillomavirus and coronavirus. This case of use showed how MAP can help to perform complex queries without any computational background. MAP is available at http://stablab.uniroma2.it/MAP

    Aligning daily activities with personality: towards a recommender system for improving wellbeing

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    Recommender Systems have not been explored to a great extentfor improving health and subjective wellbeing. Recent advances inmobile technologies and user modelling present the opportunityfor delivering such systems, however the key issue is understand-ing the drivers of subjective wellbeing at an individual level. Inthis paper we propose a novel approach for deriving personalizedactivity recommendations to improve subjective wellbeing by maxi-mizing the congruence between activities and personality traits. Toevaluate the model, we leveraged a rich dataset collected in a smart-phone study, which contains three weeks of daily activity probes,the Big-Five personality questionnaire and subjective wellbeingsurveys. We show that the model correctly infers a range of activ-ities that are ’good’ or ’bad’ (i.e. that are positively or negativelyrelated to subjective wellbeing) for a given user and that the derivedrecommendations greatly match outcomes in the real-world