366 research outputs found

    Modelling & Improving Flow Establishment in RSVP

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    RSVP has developed as a key component for the evolving Internet, and in particular for the Integrated Services Architecture. Therefore, RSVP performance is crucially important; yet this has been little studied up till now. In this paper, we target one of the most important aspects of RSVP: its ability to establish flows. We first identify the factors influencing the performance of the protocol by modelling the establishment mechanism. Then, we propose a Fast Establishment Mechanism (FEM) aimed at speeding up the set-up procedure in RSVP. We analyse FEM by means of simulation, and show that it offers improvements to the performance of RSVP over a range of likely circumstances

    REDO RSVP: Efficient Signalling for Multimedia in the Internet

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    Alarming reports of performance and scalability problems associated with per-flow reservations, have led many to lose belief in RSVP and the Integrated Services Architecture that relies on it. Because we are convinced of the need for some form of resource reservation, to support multimedia communications in the Internet, we have set about trying to improve RSVP. By careful study of the protocol, we have identified areas for improvement, and propose REDO RSVP, a reduced overhead version that includes a fast establishment mechanism (FEM). In this paper we describe the rationale for REDO RSVP and present a detailed analysis of its features and operations. We also analyse REDO RSVP by means of simulations, and show that it offers improvements to the performance of RSVP

    Cross-Layer Peer-to-Peer Track Identification and Optimization Based on Active Networking

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    P2P applications appear to emerge as ultimate killer applications due to their ability to construct highly dynamic overlay topologies with rapidly-varying and unpredictable traffic dynamics, which can constitute a serious challenge even for significantly over-provisioned IP networks. As a result, ISPs are facing new, severe network management problems that are not guaranteed to be addressed by statically deployed network engineering mechanisms. As a first step to a more complete solution to these problems, this paper proposes a P2P measurement, identification and optimisation architecture, designed to cope with the dynamicity and unpredictability of existing, well-known and future, unknown P2P systems. The purpose of this architecture is to provide to the ISPs an effective and scalable approach to control and optimise the traffic produced by P2P applications in their networks. This can be achieved through a combination of different application and network-level programmable techniques, leading to a crosslayer identification and optimisation process. These techniques can be applied using Active Networking platforms, which are able to quickly and easily deploy architectural components on demand. This flexibility of the optimisation architecture is essential to address the rapid development of new P2P protocols and the variation of known protocols

    SplitBox: Toward Efficient Private Network Function Virtualization

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    This paper presents SplitBox, an efficient system for privacy-preserving processing of network functions that are outsourced as software processes to the cloud. Specifically, cloud providers processing the network functions do not learn the network policies instructing how the functions are to be processed. First, we propose an abstract model of a generic network function based on match-action pairs. We assume that this function is processed in a distributed manner by multiple honest-but-curious cloud service providers. Then, we introduce our SplitBox system for private network function virtualization and present a proof-of-concept implementation on FastClick, an extension of the Click modular router, using a firewall as a use case. Our experimental results achieve a throughput of over 2 Gbps with 1 kB-sized packets on average, traversing up to 60 firewall rules

    Inner speech sustains predictable task switching: direct evidence in adults

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    It has been proposed that inner speech supports task selection in task-switching studies, especially when the need for endogenous control is increased. This has been established through the suppression of inner speech in cognitive-flexibility tasks that leads to poorer performance. The aim of this study is to quantify the role of inner speech in a flexibility task by using surface laryngeal electromyography, which, contrary to previous studies, enables participants to freely verbalise the tasks. We manipulated endogenous and exogenous flexibility in a mathematical switching task paradigm. Experiment 1 shows that inner speech acts as a support for switching and is recruited more often when the tasks are of an endogenous type. The main result of Experiment 2 that language is recruited more for the mixing cost than for the switch cost (regardless of the endogenous factor) extends past findings obtained through articulatory suppression

    Defect mediated melting and the breaking of quantum double symmetries

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    In this paper, we apply the method of breaking quantum double symmetries to some cases of defect mediated melting. The formalism allows for a systematic classification of possible defect condensates and the subsequent confinement and/or liberation of other degrees of freedom. We also show that the breaking of a double symmetry may well involve a (partial) restoration of an original symmetry. A detailed analysis of a number of simple but representative examples is given, where we focus on systems with global internal and external (space) symmetries. We start by rephrasing some of the well known cases involving an Abelian defect condensate, such as the Kosterlitz-Thouless transition and one-dimensional melting, in our language. Then we proceed to the non-Abelian case of a hexagonal crystal, where the hexatic phase is realized if translational defects condense in a particular rotationally invariant state. Other conceivable phases are also described in our framework.Comment: 10 pages, 4 figures, updated reference

    Fast privacy-preserving network function outsourcing

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    In this paper, we present the design and implementation of SplitBox, a system for privacy-preserving processing of network functions outsourced to cloud middleboxes—i.e., without revealing the policies governing these functions. SplitBox is built to provide privacy for a generic network function that abstracts the functionality of a variety of network functions and associated policies, including firewalls, virtual LANs, network address translators (NATs), deep packet inspection, and load balancers. We present a scalable design aiming to provide high throughput and low latency, by distributing functionalities to a few virtual machines (VMs), while providing provably secure guarantees. We implement SplitBox inside FastClick, an extension of the Click modular router, using Intel's DPDK to handle packet I/O. We evaluate our prototype experimentally to find its bottlenecks and stress-test its different components, vis-à-vis two widely used network functions, i.e., firewall and VLAN tagging. Our evaluation shows that, on commodity hardware, SplitBox can process packets close to line rate (i.e., 8.9Gbps) with up to 50 traversed policies
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